World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised Edition

By Martini, Albert, Dr.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0100002502
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 225.42 MB
Reproduction Date: 9/1/2015

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised Edition  
Author: Martini, Albert, Dr.
Volume: Revised 5th Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Martini, D. A. (2015). The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology : Revised Edition. Retrieved from http://kindle.worldlibrary.net/


Description
The concept of science and the sciences. Fundamental and historical development in the sciences. Great ideas that revolutionize our scientific world. The story of the cell and Biology. The birth of modern Biology. The rise of the modern University and experimental stations. The cell as the basic building block of life. The origin of life. The development of microbiology and microscopy. The germ theory of diseases, vaccines, and antibiotics. The vector insects and infectious diseases. The virus, viral diseases, and vaccines. The principle of vegetation and the basic requirements of plants. William Harvey, the heart and the circulatory system. Carl Linneaus and the development of modern taxonomy in biology. Charles Darwin and the development of evolution in biology. Gregor Mendel and the development of genetics and the laws of heredity.

Summary
A science book in the area of Biology and Microbiology. It discusses the lives of over 200 scientists. Their accomplishments are illustrated with over 250 pictures and diagrams. The accomplishments of these scientists are presented chronologically and are related to each other in order to illustrate the evolution of knowledge about biology and microbiology from the Classic Greek era to the present.

Excerpt
THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS BY THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS THE STORY OF THE CELL AND BIOLOGY……………………..1 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF THE BIOLOGICAL WORLD INTRODUCTION 1 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 4 THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE 5 A SCIENCE REPRESENTS A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CHARACTERIZING A DISCIPLINE IN OUR NATURAL HISTORY. FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENCES 8 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 12 LIFE AND OUR ENTIRE UNIVERSE ARE THE DIRECT PRODUCT OF E=MC2 GREAT IDEAS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED OUR SCIENTIFIC WORLD 17 SOME OF THESE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS INCLUDED: DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 17 Proposed the first ATOMIC THEORY during the CLASSIC GREEK ERA. NICHOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) Polish Astronomer 18 Proposed (1543) his HELIOCENTRIC THEORY where the SUN and not the EARTH was the CENTER of our SOLAR SYSTEM. GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Italian Mathematician and Astronomer 20 CREATOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION AND HIS LAWS OF MOTION WITH MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS TO CHARACTERIZE HIS INVESTIGATIONS. USED HIS TELESCOPE TO EXPLORE THE HEAVENS RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) French Mathematician and Philosopher. 22 CREATOR (1637) OF THE CARTESIAN COORDINATES AND THE NEW MATHEMATICS OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY. ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) English Scientist and Mathematician 24 DISCOVERED (mid 1600’s) the FORCE of GRAVITY (F=g (M_1 〖 M〗_2)/r^2 ) and UNIFIED the TERRESTRIAL and COSMIC LAWS of MOTION. ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 27 The FOUNDER of MODERN CHEMISTRY and creator of the LAW of the CONSERVATION of MATTER. CO-CREATOR of the METRIC SYSTEM IN 1795. JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 29 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. Developed (1800-1808) his MODERN ATOMIC THEORY from the CHEMISTRY POINT of VIEW and created the CONCEPT of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS. . JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 31 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. Creator (1813) of the MODERN ATOMIC SYMBOLS and the CHEMICAL FORMULAS. PROPOSED (1803) his THEORY of the CHEMICAL RADICALS. HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 31 The FOUNDER (early 1800’s) of the new science of ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Isolated (early 1800’s) several new chemical elements, including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium and boron. AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) Italian Physicist 31 Proposed (1811) his AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS and the AVOGADRO’S NUMBER ( 6.022 X 1023 ) which was of fundamental value in PHYSICS and CHEMISTRY. DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 32 Creator (1869-1871) of his PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829 - 1896) German Organic Chemist 34 Creator (1800’S) of the CARBON CHEMISTRY. Introduced (1858) his STRUCTURAL FORMULAS, the CARBON TO CARBON BONDS and the BENZENE RING. JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF (1852 - 1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 35 Proposed (1874) his THREE DIMENSIONAL CARBON TETRAHEDRON. WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766 - 1828) English Chemist and Physicist 35 Proposed (1790’s) his CONCEPT of the EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS. EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825 - 1899) English Chemist 36 Introduced (1852) his THEORY of the VALENCE. SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist 37 Proposed (1884-1887) his fundamental THEORY of IONIZATION and his CONCEPT of the CATALYSTS (1889) in facilitating chemical reactions. FREDERICK SODDY (1877 - 1956) English Chemist 38 Proposed (1910-1912) his CONCEPT of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES, a FUNDAMENTAL ATOMIC PROPERTY, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. FRANCIS W. ASTON (1877 - 1945) English Chemist and Physicist 38 Confirmed the existence of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES proposed by SODDY And discovered several new ISOTOPES. HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist 40 Introduced (1914) his CONCEPT of the ATOMIC NUMBER (THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM,) a fundamental ATOMIC PROPERTY IN CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. HENRI BECQUEREL (1852 - 1906) French Physicist 40 Discovered (1896) the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of SCIENCE and HUMANITY. WILHELM K. ROENTGEN (1845 - 1923) German Physicist 41 Discovered (1895) the X-RAYS, essential in SCIENCE & MEDICINE. MARIE CURIE (1867 - 1934) French Chemist 42 PIERRE CURIE (1859 - 1906) French Chemist 42 They developed the CONCEPT of RADIOACTIVITY in the early 1900’s. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 42 MORE ON THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS TO COME: JOSEPH J. THOMSON (1856 - 1940) English Physicist 55 Discovered (1897) the negatively charged subatomic particles, the ELECTRONS, which made the ATOM a NEW and DYNAMIC ENTITY. With the ELECTRON THOMSON started the new science of PARTICLE PHYSICS. ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871 - 1937) British Physicist 58 Discovered (early 1900’s) the ATOMIC NUCLEUS and the POSITIVELY CHARGED subatomic particles, the PROTONS of the NUCLEUS. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS POINT of VIEW. NIELS H. BOHR (1885 - 1962) Danish Physicist 60 Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL, which became the MODERN ATOMIC MODEL in the SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. MAX K. PLANCK (1858 - 1947) German Physicist 62 Postulated (1900) his QUANTUM THEORY of ENERGY, which indicated that ENERGY, like MATTER, came in BUNDLES that he named, a QUANTUM of ENERGY. The QUANTUM THEORY led to the development of the new PHYSICS of QUANTUM MECHANICS, which completely changed the WORLD of SCIENCE. JAMES CHADWICK (1891 - 1974) English Physicist 62 Discovered (1932) the NEUTRAL SUBATOMIC PARTICLES, the NEUTRONS, MADE THE ATOM A COMPLETE UNIT OF MATTER. ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955 ) German Physicist 64 The FOUNDER of MODERN PHYSICS and proponent (1905 -1916) of his THEORY of RELATIVITY, where SPACE, TIME, ENERGY, MATTER and the FORCE of GRAVITY were redefined. ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745 - 1827) Italian Physicist 66 Invented (1800) the ELECTRIC BATTERY and discovered the ELECTRIC CURRENT, which revolutionized the world of SCIENCE & COMMUNICATION. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867) English Physicist 67 Discovered (early 1800’s) the PHENOMENON of ELECTROMAGNETISM, which created a new SCIENCE and a new WORLD. Invented the ELECTRIC MOTOR and the ELECTRIC GENERATOR in the 1820’s and 1830’s. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) Scottish Mathematician and Physicist 67 Developed the MATHEMATICAL CHARACTERIZATION of the PROCESS of ELECTROMAGNETISM. Proposed (1860) his KINETIC THEORY of GASES, indicating that MOLECULES in GASES moved in all directions and at all velocities. JOSEPH HENRY (1797 - 1878) American Physicist 67 Created the ELECTROMAGNETS in the 1830’s. THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847 - 1931) American Inventor 68 Created the ELECTRIC LIGHT (1879) & many other MAGNIFICENT INVENTIONS. EDISON POPULARIZED the use of the DIRECT ELECTRIC CURRENT as a SOURCE of ENERGY in homes and in industry.. NIKOLA TESLA (1856 -1943) American Electrical Engineer 69 Developed the modern concept of the ALTERNATING ELECTRIC CURRENT, which became more PRACTICAL than the DIRECT CURRENT proposed by EDISON. SAMUEL MORSE (1791 - 1872) American Inventor 69 Created (by 1840) the TELEGRAPH and the MORSE CODE as a SYSTEM of COMMUNICATION, which became popular all over the world. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847 - 1922) Scottish-American Inventor 69 Invented (by 1876) the TELEPHONE, or TALKING WIRE as a SYSTEM of COMMUNICATION in HOMES and INDUSTRY.. MARCHESE MARCONI (1874 - 1937) Italian Electrical Engineer 69 Invented (1895-1900) the WIRELESS RADIO COMMUNICATION ERNST A. RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 70 JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 70 VLADIMIR ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 70 These three previous scientists invented, individually, the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE, which brought to light the MAGNIFICENT SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD. CHARLES G. BARKLA (1877 - 1944) English Physicist 70 MAX VON LAUE (1879 - 1960) German Physicist 70 WILLIAM H. BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist 70 WILLIAM L. BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist 70 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) American Physicist 70 These five previous scientists determined the nature of X-RAYS and created, individually, the X-RAY DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUE, which helped to characterize the structure of COMPLEX MINERALS. GYORGY HEVESY (1885 - 1966) Hungarian Chemist 71 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898 - 1941) German-American Biochemist 71 These two previous scientists developed, individually, the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE, which facilitated many GREAT DISCOVERIES in the fields of CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY and MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. MIKHAIL TSVETT (1872 - 1919) Russian-Italian Chemist 71 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872 - 1942) German Chemist 71 FRANK H. SPEDDING (1902 - 1984) American Chemist 71 ARCHER J. MARTIN (1910 - 2002) English Biochemist 71 RICHARD L. SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist 71 These five previous scientists developed CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE, which helped to isolate and characterize the NATURE of many complex molecules, especially the MAGNIFICENT MOLECULES of LIFE, DNA and RNA. THOMAS GRAHAM (1805 - 1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 71 FOUNDER of COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY. Pioneered the studies on DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS and OSMOSIS as ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES, which contributed significantly to the understanding of some of the most important PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES. ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 71 GEORGE E. PALADE (1912 - 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist 71 CHRISTIAN De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist 71 These three previous scientists pioneered the use of the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE in the study of the STRUCTURE & PHYSIOLOGY of the CELL. EMIL H. FISCHER (1852 - 1919) German Chemist 72 HANS FISCHER (1881 - 1945) German Chemist 72 MELVIN CALVIN (1911 - 1997) American Biochemist 74 Characterized (1957) the entire process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, which is one of the most FUNDAMENTAL BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES of LIFE FREDERICK G. HOPKINS (1861 - 1947) English Biochemist 74 WILLIAM C. ROSE (1887 - 1985) American Biochemist 74 These two previous scientists developed the concepts of ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS and VITAMINS in the early 1900’s. HANS A. KREBS (1900 - 1981) German-British Biochemist 75 Characterized (1940) the KREBS’ CYCLE as one of the most significant ENERGY PRODUCING PROCESSES, in the form of ATP, within the MITOCHONDRIA of CELLS. PHOEBUS A. LEVENE (1869 - 1940) Russian-American Chemist 75 First to identify the NUCLEIC ACIDS, RNA and DNA. Identified the NUCLEOTIDES as the BUILDING BLOCKS of NUCLEIC ACIDS. PETER D. MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist 75 Identified the MITOCHONDRIA as the ENERGY FACTORY in CELLS. Characterized the ENERGY TRANSFER MECHANISM in CELLS and the production of ATP with its HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATE BONDS. FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist 75 Determined the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE in PROTEIN MOLECULES. Determined (1977) the NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE in the DNA MOLECULE. ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist 76 Characterized (1940’S) the four NITROGENOUS BASES in THE NUCLEIC ACIDS, which helped CRICK and WATSON in the creation of their DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE. MAURICE H. WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 76 FRANCIS H. CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist 77 JAMES D. WATSON (1928 -) American Biochemist 77 These two previous scientists developed (1953) the MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which created a NEW REVOLUTION in GENETICS and in the BIOLOGICAL WORLD, as the FUNDAMENTAL source of GENETIC INFORMATION in HEREDITY. CLOSING STATEMENTS 78 SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT 81 IS THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE ANSWER TO THE MYSTERIES OF OUR UNIVERSE? ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 82 THE STORY OF THE CELL AND BIOLOGY 87 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE BY VIRTUE OF MACROMOLECULES, CELL ORGANELLES AND PROCESSES, WHICH MAKE POSSIBLE THE EXISTENCE OF LIFE AS A SELF-SUSTAINING SUPERNATURAL AND MIRACULOUS ENTITY OF NATURE. BIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE 87 BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION AND HIERARCHY OF LIFE 88 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 89 THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES OF THE FUTURE 90 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 91 ABSTRACT ON OUR BEAUTIFUL GREEN PLANET EARTH 95 THE EARLY HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 96 THE BIOLOGY OF ANTIQUITY 96 THE BIOLOGY OF THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA 98 THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS WERE THE FIRST TO ABANDON MYSTICISM AND TO ADOPT A NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE OBSERVATION OF OUR NATURAL WORLD TO START THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION. THALES (624 - 546 BC) Greek Philosopher 99 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) Greek Philosopher 99 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 99 EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) Greek Philosopher 99 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) Greek Mathematician 100 ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) Greek Mathematician and Engineer 100 ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) Greek Astronomer 100 HIPPOCRATES (460 - 370 BC) Greek Physician 101 HIPPOCRATES IS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF MODERN MEDICINE. ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 102 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 103 AULUS CORNELIUS CELSUS (25 BC - 50 AD) Roman Encyclopedist 103 GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS (23 - 79) Roman Scholar 104 GALEN (130 - 200) Greek Physician 105 Galen was the founder of modern medicine, whose writings became the basic source of medical information. THE BIOLOGY AND SCIENCES OF THE MEDIEVAL ERA 105 AVICENNA (980 - 1037) Persian Physician and Biologist .106 THE BIRTH OF MODERN BIOLOGY .108 THE RISE OF UNIVERSITIES DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE .108 JOHANN GUTENBERG (1398 - 1468) German Inventor 109 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS in the 1450’s AND THE POPULARIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN OUR SOCIETY. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN HUMAN ANATOMY 110 A NEW SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 110 HUMAN ANATOMY DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 111 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275 - 1326) Italian Anatomist 111 Published (1316) the first book entirely devoted to HUMAN ANATOMY. LEONARDO Da VINCI (1452 - 1519) Italian Artist and Scientist .113 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF HUMAN ANATOMY ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514 - 1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist…………………….115 ONE OF THE GREAT ANATOMISTS OF THE RENAISSANCE. PUBLISHED HIS BOOK THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY GABRIELLO FALLOPIUS (1523 - 1562) Italian Anatomist .116 REALDO COLOMBO (1510 - 1559) Italian Anatomist .117 BARTOLOMEO EUSTACHIO (1510 - 1574) Italian Anatomist .118 FABRICIUS AQUAPENDENTE (1537 - 1619) Italian Physician .118 THE CELL AS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE 119 THE CELL IS THE BASIC BUILDING UNIT OF LIFE BY VIRTUE OF MACROMOLECULES, CELL ORGANELLES AND PROCESSES, WHICH MAKE POSSIBLE THE EXISTENCE OF LIFE AS A SELF-SUSTAINING SUPERNATURAL AND MIRACULOUS ENTITY OF NATURE. THE CELL THEORY 121 MATTHIAS J. SCHLEIDEN (1804 - 1881) German Botanist 123 ONE OF THE PROPONENTS OF THE CELL THEORY IN 1838. THEODOR SCHWANN (1810 - 1882) German Physiologist 125 ONE OF THE PROPONENTS OF THE CELL THEORY IN 1839. THE CELL THEORY AND CELL DIVISION 126 CELL DIVISION AND THE CELL NUCLEUS 128 ROBERT BROWN (1773-1882) ………………………………………………………………..128 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843 - 1905) German Anatomist 130 FIRST TO DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF CELL DIVISION, MITOSIS IN 1882. EDUARD VAN BENEDEN (1846-1910)………………………………………………………131 CELL CLASSIFICATION, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 132 CELL CLASSIFICATION 132 CELL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 136 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE BY SPONTANEOUS GENERATION VS VITALISM 141 FRANCESCO REDI (1626 - 1699) Italian Physician 142 LAZZARO SPALLANZANI (1729 - 1799) Italian Microbiologist 143 DISCREDITED THE THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION IN 1765. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 144 DISCREDITED THE THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION IN 1860-1862. AN ABSTRACT ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR UNIVERSE AND LIFE ITSELF 146 THE BIG BANG THEORY 147 THE INCREDIBLE MYSTERY OF OUR COSMOS 149 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL 151* SVANTE ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist 152 Proposed (1907) the origin of life on EARTH from LIVING SPORES ORIGINATING from our OUTER SPACE. ALEXANDER I. OPARIN (1894 - 1980) Soviet Biochemist 153 STANLEY L. MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist 154 Experimented (1953) with the creation of LIFE in the LABORATORY. THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST CELL 154 SIDNEY W. FOX (1912 - 1998) American Biochemist 155 Experimented (1958) with the creation of LIFE in the LABORATORY from PROTEINOIDS, MICROSPHERES to the LIVING CELL. EMBRYOLOGY AND THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANISMS 157 THE PREFORMATION THEORY VS THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS 157 THE PREFORMATION THEORY 157 THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS 158 KASPAR FRIEDRICH WOLFF (1733 - 1794) German Physiologist 160 One of the FOUNDERS of the SCIENCE of EMBRYOLOGY. Introduced the THEORY of EPIGENESIS or the FORMATION of the various tissues and the EMBRYO by way of GRADUAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION. KARL ERNST VON BAER (1792 - 1876) German-Russian Embryologist 162 One of the FOUNDERS of EMBRYOLOGY. Published (1828-1837) one of the first textbooks on EMBRYOLOGY. Reintroduced the THEORY of EPIGENESIS or his THEORY of GERM LAYERS. MICROSCOPY, MICROBIOLOGY AND THE FANTASTIC WORLD OF THE VERY SMALL 165 DISEASES PREDOMINANT DURING THE RENAISSANCE ERA 165 SOME OF THE MOST COMMON DISEASES 166 SOME OF THE MOST DEVASTATING EPIDEMICS IN EUROPE 168 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY AND MICROBIOLOGY 170 THE INVENTION OF THE MICROSCOPE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY 171 THE INVENTION OF THE EARLY MICROSCOPES 173 HANS LIPPERSHEY (1570 - 1619) German-Dutch Optician 173 ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist 175 CONSTRUCTED THE FIRST SINGLE-LENS MICROSCOPES in 1674. ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist 177 CONSTRUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY COMPOUND MICROSCOPES JOSEPH J. LISTER (1786 - 1869) English Optician 178 CREATED THE FIRST ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPE in 1830. GIOVANNI B. AMICI (1786 - 1868) Italian Physicist 180 INVENTED THE OIL-IMMERSION MICROSCOPE in 1840. EARLY DISCOVERIES IN MICROSCOPY AND MICROBIOLOGY 180 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628 - 1694) Italian Microscopist and Physiologist. 182 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF MICROSCOPY ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist 183 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF MICROSCOPY CONSTRUCTED THE FIRST SINGLE-LENS MICROSCOPES IN 1674. DISCOVERED THE PROTOZOA IN 1675 AND THE BACTERIA IN 1683 ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist 185 CONSTRUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY COMPOUND MICROSCOPES Published (1665) his magnificent book, MICROGRAPHIA, where he reported his discovery of the PLANT CELL while looking at CORK TISSUE under his MICROSCOPE. JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist 187 The FOUNDER of ENTOMOLOGY. Discovered (1658) the RED BLOOD CELLS. NEHEMIAH GREW (1641 - 1712) English Botanist 189 Used his microscope to study PLANTS and their ORGANS. REGNIER De GRAAF (1641 - 1673) Dutch Anatomist 189 OTTO FRIEDRICH MULLER (1730 - 1784) Danish Biologist 190 Determined that BACTERIA had different SHAPES. JAN E. PURKINJE (1787 - 1869) Czech Physiologist 191 First biologist to use the word protoplasm. Introduced the microtome to prepare thin section. Offered college courses in microscopy FRIEDRICH GUSTAV HENLE (1809 - 1885) German Anatomist and Pathologist 192 FERDINAND JULIUS COHN (1828 - 1898) German Botanist 194 One of the FOUNDERS of BACTERIOLOGY. Made a systematic study of the BACTERIA. THE GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY 195 THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES 195 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist 197 One of the FOUNDERS of MICROBIOLOGY together with ROBERT KOCH. Proponent of the GERM THEORY of DISEASES in the 1860’s, which REVOLUTIONIZED the world of MEDICINE and MICROBIOLOGY. LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES 199 THE SOURING OF WINE AND BEER DURING FERMENTATION 200 THE KILLING OF THE SILKWORMS IN FARMERS FIELDS 200 THE DEATH OF MOTHERS BY THE CHILDBED FEVER 201 PASTEUR AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE IN SHEEP 202 PASTEUR AND THE RABIES DISEASE (HYDROPHOBIA) 204 ILYA ILICH MECHNIKOV (1845 - 1916) Russian-French Bacteriologist 208 Discovered the CONCEPT of the PHAGOCYTES and proposed the WHITE BLOOD CELL THEORY of immunity in 1882. FRIEDRICH AUGUST LOFFLER (1852 - 1915) German Bacteriologist 209 ROBERT HEINRICH KOCH (1843 - 1910) German Bacteriologist 211 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF BACTERIOLOGY. PROPONENT OF THE FOUR POSTULATES IN BACTERIOLOGY. INTRODUCED THE SOLID MEDIA TO CREATE PURE CULTURES IN 1887. DISCOVERED THE CAUSE OF SEVERAL DISEASES, INCLUDING TUBERCULOSIS, CHOLERA AND THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. THE PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE AND THE SOLID MEDIUM 211 THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PATHOGENIC ORGANISM 212 KOCH’S FOUR POSTULATES 213 KOCH AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE 215 KOCH AND TUBERCULOSIS 215 PAUL EHRLICH (1854 - 1915) German Bacteriologist 218 Created the NEW SCIENCE of CHEMOTHERAPY. Developed TECHNIQUES to STAIN MICROORGANISMS and to better OBSERVE The MICROSCOPIC WORLD. TOGETHER WITH EMIL VON BEHRING, EHRLICH DEVELOPED A SERUM AGAINST DIPTHERIA IN 1892 AND MANY CHILDREN WERE SAVED. IN 1909-1910, EHRLICH FOUND AN ARSENIC COMPOUND ( #606 or SALVARSAN) TO CONTROL SYPHILIS, WHICH SAVED MANY PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD. THIS WAS A FANTASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENT IN MEDICINE (CHEMOTHERAPY). EHRLICH, VON BEHRING and DIPTHERIA in CHILDREN 219 PAUL EHRLICH, SYPHILIS & CHEMOTHERAPY-THE MAGIC BULLET 221 EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING (1854 - 1917) German Bacteriologist 224 THE ERA OF VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES 225 THE DISCOVERY OF VECTOR INSECTS IN SPREADING DISEASES WAS A MAGNIFICENT ACCOMPLISHMENT, WHICH STARTED A NEW REVOLUTION IN THE WORLD OF MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE AMERICAS 226 THEOBALD SMITH (1859 - 1934) German-American Pathologist 227 First to associate a VECTOR INSECT with the SPREAD of a DISEASE. PATRICK MANSON (1844 - 1922) Scottish Physician 229 Suggested the MOSQUITO as a VECTOR INSECT in MALARIA. CHARLES LEWIS LAVERAN (1845 - 1922) French Physician 230 Discovered in 1880 that a PROTOZOAN and not a BACTERIA was the PATHOGEN that caused MALARIA. RONALD ROSS (1857 - 1932) English Physician 231 Confirmed in 1897 that MALARIA was caused by a PROTOZOA transmitted by the MOSQUITO ANOPHELES. HOWARD TAILOR RICKETTS (1871 - 1910) American Pathologist 233 Discovered in 1906 the RICKETTSIA GERM, which was NAMED in his HONOR. YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA IN THE HOT AND WET TROPICS 235 YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA PROMOTED THE DEVELOPMENT OF TROPICAL MEDICINE, WHICH WAS VERY MUCH NEEDED IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. WALTER REED (1851 - 1902) American Military Surgeon & Bacteriologist 237 Determined in 1901 that YELLOW FEVER was caused by a VIRUS transmitted by the AEDES MOSQUITO. THE PANAMA CANAL, YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA 238 WILLIAM CRAWFORD GORGAS (1854 - 1920) American Army Surgeon 240 ERADICATED YELLOW FEVER & MALARIA AS WELL AS THE AEDES & THE ANOPHELES MOSQUITOS IN PANAMA INSECTICIDES, VECTOR INSECTS AND AGRICULTURE 241 PAUL HERMANN MULLER (1899 - 1965) Swiss Chemist 242 In 1939 PAUL MULLER found that the CHEMICAL DDT was an excellent INSECTICIDE and AGRICULTURE started to receive great benefits from the use of this MIRACLE PESTICIDE. RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964) Marine Biologist 246 RACHEL CARSON AND HER BOOK SILENT SPRING 246 THE ERA OF WONDER DRUGS, SULFA DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS 248 THE 20TH CENTURY BROUGHT WITH IT THE FANTASTIC NEW ERA OF MODERN MEDICINE, THE USE OF VACCINATION, WONDER DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS, AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE VIRUS WITH ALL ITS ECLECTIC PROPERTIES. GERHARD DOMAGK (1895 - 1964) German Biochemist and Bacteriologist 250 INTRODUCED IN 1935, PRONTOSIL, A SULFA-DRUG AGAINST THE STREPTOCOCCUS BACTERIA, WHICH BECAME A WONDER DRUG AGAINST BACTERIAL INFECTIONS AND DISEASES. DANIELE BOVET (1907 - 1992) Swiss-Italian Pharmacologist 251 DISCOVERED SULFANILAMIDE AS AN ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENT AND THE ANTIHISTAMINES THE NEW ERA OF THE TRUE ANTIBIOTICS 253 THE REAL WONDER DRUGS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 253 WITH THE ADVENT OF THE TRUE ANTIBIOTICS, THE NEW ERA OF THE TRUE WONDER DRUGS HAD FINALLY COME TO FRUITION IN THE 20TH CENTURY. THE ERA OF ANTIBIOTICS WAS INDEED A FANTASTIC BLESSING TO SOLDIERS AND TO ALL HUMANITY. ALEXANDER FLEMING (1881 - 1955) Scottish Bacteriologist 255 ALEXANDER FLEMING DISCOVERED PENICILLIN (1929), WHICH BROUGHT TO HUMANITY A SENSE OF JOY AND MARVELOUS HEALTH. HOWARD WALTER FLOREY (1898 - 1968) Australian-English Pathologist 259 ERNST BORIS CHAIN (1906 - 1979) German-English Biochemist 260 SELMAN A. WAKSMAN (1888 - 1973) Russian-American Microbiologist 262, Discovered (1943) the ANTIBIOTIC STREPTOMYCIN, against GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, which was very effective against TUBERCULOSIS. RENE JULES DUBOS (1901 - 1982) French-American Microbiologist 263 BENJAMIN MINGE DUGGAR (1872 - 1956) American Botanist 264 Discovered in 1948, AUREOMYCIN, another fantastic ANTIBIOTIC, together with PENICILLIN. VIRUSES, VIRAL DISEASES AND VIRUS VACCINES 265 THE DISCOVERY OF THE VIRUS AND ITS ECLECTIC PROPERTIES OPENED A FANTASTIC NEW CHAPTER IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL WORLD WITH MAGNIFICENT MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS. HOW SMALL IS A VIRUS? 266 LIFE ATTRIBUTES OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 267 EDWARD JENNER, LOUIS PASTEUR & THE VIRUS VACCINES 269 EDWARD JENNER (1749 - 1823) English Physician 270 Dr. JENNER was the creator (1798) of the first VACCINE in MEDICAL HISTORY and one that was particularly meaningful because it dealt with a VIRAL DISEASE, SMALL POX, which had devastating health implications. LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE RABIES VACCINE 272 LOUIS PASTEUR proposed in the 1860’s his famous GERM THEORY of DISEASES and was among the first microbiologists to make a concerted effort to develop VACCINES against various diseases in the 1880’s. CHARLES CHAMBERLAND (1851 - 1908) French Bacteriologist 275 Introduced the autoclave in the laboratory. Created the porcelain filter with very fine pores that made possible the isolation of the tobacco mosaic virus by DMITRI IVANOVSKY AND MARTINUS BEIJERINCK THE TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE AND THE DISCOVERY OF VIRUSES 275 DMITRI I. IVANOVSKY (1864 - 1920) Russian Botanist 276 MARTINUS WILLEM BEIJERINCK (1851 - 1931) Dutch Botanist 278 DISCOVERED (1898) THE GERM THAT CAUSED THE TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE AND HE NAMED IT A VIRUS THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VIRUS 280 THE INVISIBLE PATHOGENIC AGENT THAT DID NOT EVEN QUALIFIED AS A LIVING ORGANISM. WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY (1904 - 1971) American Biochemist 283 ISOLATED (1935) THE VIRUS FOR THE FIRST TIME, IN THE CRYSTALLINE FORM, FROM TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASED PLANTS FREDERICK WILLIAM TWORT (1877 - 1950) English Bacteriologist 285 DISCOVERED THE BACTERIOPHAGES OR BACTERIA KILLING VIRUSES FREDERICK CHARLES BAWDEN (1908 - 1972) English Plant Pathologist 286 HEINZ FRAENKEL-CONRAT (1910 - 1999) German-American Biochemist. 288 DEMONSTRATED THAT THE VIRUS WAS A NUCLEOPROTEIN AND SUGGESTED THAT ITS NUCLEIC ACID PORTION MAY BE THE ONE ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC INFORMATION. ROBLEY COOK WILLIAMS (1908 - 1995) American Biophysicist 291 DEVELOPED THE SHADOW CASTING TECHNIQUE IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY CULTURING THE VIRUS AND THE VIRUS VACCINES 291 ERNEST WILLIAM GOODPASTURE (1886 - 1960) American Pathologist 296 Developed a method to grow VIRUSES in CHICK EMBRYOS and FERTILIZED CHICKEN EGGS. MAX THEILER (1899 - 1972) South African-American Virologist 297 CULTURING THE POLIO VIRUS AND THE POLIO VACCINES 298 JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS (1897 - 1985) American Microbiologist 301 TOGETHER WITH THOMAS WELLER & FREDERICK ROBBINS, DEVELOPED (1949) A METHOD TO GROW VIRUSES IN A TISSUE CULTURE WITH ADDED BLOOD AND ANTIBIOTICS POLIO EPIDEMICS IN THE USA AND THE POLIO VACCINE……….302 THE POLIO EPIDEMICS IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 1950’S WAS ONE OF THE WORST AND IT DEMANDED IMMEDIATE ATTENTION BY THE MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY. JONAS EDWARD SALK (1914 - 1995) American Microbiologist 304 BY 1952 Dr. JONAS EDWARD SALK HAD DEVELOPED HIS POLIO VACCINE, WHICH WAS ANNOUNCED IN 1955 AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, AND NOW THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE WORLD COULD LOOK AT THE FUTURE WITH JOY AND HOPE. ALBERT BRUCE SABIN (1906 - 1993) Polish-American Microbiologist 307 BY 1955 Dr. ALBERT BRUCE SABIN HAD DEVELOPED HIS ORAL POLIO VACCINE, WHICH WAS ALSO VERY SUCCESSFUL, AND THE CHILDREN OF THE WORLD COULD SAY AGAIN, WE ARE GRATEFUL TO THOSE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTISTS WHO GIVE THEIR LIVES TO SCIENCE WITH DEDICATION AND LOVE. THE STORY OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION 310 THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION OR WHAT MAKES PLANTS GROW HAS FASCINATED SCIENTISTS SINCE THE 16TH CENTURY AND BECAME A MAGNIFICENT JOURNEY OF CHALLENGING DISCOVERIES. JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580 - 1644) Flemish Chemist and Physiologist 312 In the 1600’s, JAN VAN HELMONT conducted one of the first experiments in PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, his WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT, which started the field of BOTANICAL EXPERIMENTATION. VAN HELMONT determined that WATER was part of the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION. VAN HELMONT’S WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT 314 JOHN WOODWARD (1665 - 1728) English Scholar and Naturalist 316 Started in the late 1600’S the practice of WATER CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. JOHANN RUDOLF GLAUBER (1604 - 1670) German Chemist 318 JOHN MAYOW (1641 - 1679) English Physiologist 319 JETHRO TULL (1674 - 1741) English Scholar 320 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 322 THE FOUNDER OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY. DISCOVERED AND ISOLATED IN THE EARLY 1800’S THE PLANT NUTRIENTS POTASSIUM, SODIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND OTHERS ARTHUR YOUNG (1741 - 1820) English Agriculturist 325 In 1763 ARTHUR YOUNG started his SAND CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. THE NEW CHEMISTRY & THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION 326 THE NEW CHEMISTRY THAT WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1700’S BY LAVOISIER, DALTON, BERZELIUS, BLACK, CAVENDISH, PRIESTLEY AND OTHERS, MADE POSSIBLE THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION. ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 326 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 326 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 327 JOSEPH BLACK (1728 - 1799) Scottish Chemist 327 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731 - 1810) English Chemist and Physicist 327 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist 327 KARL W. SCHEELE (1742 - 1786) Swedish Chemist 327 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749 - 1819) Scottish Chemist 327 DMITRI I. MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 328 THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION 328 STEPHEN HALES (1677 - 1761) English Botanist and Chemist 329 The FOUNDER of MODERN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY’ and one of the first to recognize in the 1770’s that SOMETHING in the AIR was also part of the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist 329 Determined that ANIMALS VITIATED the AIR during RESPIRATION. JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730 - 1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist 331 In 1779-1780, INGENHOUSZ determined that in the presence of LIGHT PLANTS ABSORBED CARBON DIOXIDE and RELEASED OXYGEN. He had Just DISCOVERED PHOTOSYNTHESIS. JULIUS VON SACHS (1832 - 1897) German Botanist 334 IDENTIFIED TROPISM & TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS. DETERMINED IN 1865 THAT CHLOROPHYLL & PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURRED IN THE CHLOROPLASTS OF PLANT CELLS. THIS WAS A FUNDAMENTAL DISCOVERY IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL CHEMISTRY 335 JEAN SENEBIER (1742 - 1809) Swiss Scholar and Plant Physiologist 337 ESTABLISHED THAT PHOTOSYNTHESIS WAS A REAL BIOLOGICAL PROCESS THAT TOOK PLACE IN GREEN PLANTS IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT, JUST AS JAN INGENHOUSZ HAD DETERMINED. THEODORE De SAUSSURE (1767 - 1845) Swiss Chemist and Plant Physiologist 339 INTRODUCED THE QUANTITATIVE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IN HIS STUDIES WITH PHOTOSYNTHESIS JEAN BAPTISTE BOUSSINGAULT (1801 - 1887) French Chemist 341 FOUNDER OF THE FIELD-PLOT RESEARCH METHOD IN SOIL CHEMISTRY-FERTILITY. HE ESTABLISHED IN 1836 ONE OF THE FIRST AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS IN EUROPE. THE NEW ERA OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 342 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803 - 1873) German Chemist 344 FOUNDER OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY & THE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY. ESTABLISHED ONE OF THE FIRST TEACHING LABORATORIES IN CHEMISTRY THE ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 348 The ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION is one of the oldest AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS in the world, founded in 1843 by SIR JOHN BENNET LAWES. JOHN BENNET LAWES (1814 - 1900) Agricultural Scientist 350 FOUNDER OF THE ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION IN 1843. THE CONCEPT OF SOIL pH AND SOIL ACIDITY-ALKALINITY 352 SOREN P. SORENSEN (1868 -1939) Danish Chemist 352 PROPONENT OF THE CONCEPT OF pH TO REPRESENT THE ACIDITY - ALKALINITY OF SOLUTIONS ( pH = - log H+ ) THE ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS AND SOIL FERTILITY 352 THE MACRONUTRIENTS AND THE MICRONUTRIENTS 352 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 354 THE STORY OF WILLIAM HARVEY THE HEART, BLOOD & CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 355 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 355 PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 356 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578 - 1657) English Physician and Anatomist………………358 PROPOSED (1628) THE EXISTENCE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM THE FOUNDER OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist 361 RICHARD LOWER (1631 - 1691) English Physician 362 PIONEERED THE USE OF BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS IN HUMANS KARL LANDSTEINER (1868 - 1943) Austrian-American Biologist 363 DISCOVERED (1900) THE VARIOUS TYPES OF HUMAN BLOOD, WHICH MADE BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS A SAFE MEDICAL PRACTICE ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION 366 THE STORY OF CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY 368 TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY IS THE SCIENCE THAT PREPARES A SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND NAMING OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGANIZING & UNDERSTANDING KNOWLEDGE. THE TAXONOMIC UNITS OR LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION 370 THE GREEK AND ROMAN TAXONOMY 371 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 371 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 372 PLINY (23 - 79) Roman Scholar 372 THE ROLE OF HERBALISTS IN EUROPEAN PLANT ANATOMY 373 THE EARLY TAXONOMISTS 373 LUCA GHINI (1490 - 1556) Italian Physician and Botanist 374 CREATED THE FIRST HERBARIUM & THE FIRST BOTANICAL GARDENS IN ITALY AND EUROPE DURING THE MID 1500’S. ANDREA CESALPINO (1519 - 1603) Italian Taxonomist 375 JEAN BAUHIN (1541 - 1631) French-Swiss Naturalist 376 CASPAR BAUHIN (1560 - 1624) French-Swiss Naturalist 376 JOHN RAY (1627 - 1705) British Botanist and Naturalist 377 JOSEPH P. De TOURNEFORT (1656 - 1708) French Botanist 379 CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY 381 CARL LINNAEUS (1707 - 1778) Swedish Botanist and Zoologist 382 THE FOUNDER OF MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY STARTED THE MODERN ORGANIZATION OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS. LINNAEUS’ EXPEDITION TO LAPLAND 384 LINNAEUS’ ACCOMPLISHMENTS 384 LINNAEUS PUBLICATIONS 387 SYSTEMA NATURAE, PUBLISHED IN 1735 AND 1758 388 SPECIES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1753 389 FLORA LAPPONICA, PUBLISHED IN 1737 389 CRITICA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1735 389 GENERA PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1735 389 FUNDAMENTA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1736 389 CLASSES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1737 389 PHILOSOPHIA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1751 389 THE POST LINNAEAN TAXONOMY 392 JEAN LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist 393 THE FOUNDER OF MODERN INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY AND TAXONOMY. ANTOINE LAURENT De JUSSIEU (1748 - 1836) French Botanist 397 CREATED A NATURAL SYSTEM OF PLANT CLASSIFICATION GEORGES L. CUVIER (1769 - 1832) French Anatomist and Naturalist 399 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND PALEONTOLOGY WHO MADE A CLASSIC STUDY OF FOSSILS AUGUSTIN P. De CANDOLLE (1778 - 1841) Swiss-French Botanist 404 INTRODUCED A NEW NATURAL SYSTEM OF PLANT CLASSIFICATION ROBERT BROWN (1773 - 1858) Scottish Botanist 408 DISCOVERED THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES IN 1827. USED THE MICROSCOPE TO RECOGNIZE THAT THE NUCLEUS WAS A PERMANENT COMPONENT OF THE CELL IN THE 1830’S. HE WAS THE FIRST TO SEPARATE HIGHER PLANTS INTO GYMNOSPERMS AND ANGIOSPERMS RICHARD OWEN (1804 - 1892) English Anatomist and Paleontologist 411 ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY & PALEONTOLOGY. THE FIRST OF THE GREAT DINOSAUR HUNTERS. JEAN LOUIS AGASSIZ (1807 - 1873) Swiss-American Naturalist 414 HE WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO PROPOSE THE EXISTENCE OF GLACIATIONS AND ICE AGES IN EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA. THE STORY OF CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGY 418 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION BY CHARLES DARWIN WAS ONE OF THE MOST FANTASTIC SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES IN THE ANNALS OF SCIENCE, TOGETHER WITH COPERNICUS’ HELIOCENTRIC THEORY, NEWTON’S FORCE OF GRAVITY, FARADAY’S ELECTROMAGNETISM, EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF RELATIVITY AND QUANTUM MECHANICS. EARLY IDEAS ON EVOLUTION 420 (BIOLOGICAL, GEOLOGIC AND COSMIC) EMPEDOCLES (490 - 430 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 420 EPICURUS (341 - 270 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 420 THOMAS AQUINAS (1225 - 1274) Italian Philosopher and Theologian 421 BELIEVED IN CREATIONISM BUT ACCEPTED THE AUTONOMY OF NATURE TO CHANGE LIVING ORGANISMS ACCORDING TO A DIVINE DESIGN. ALFRED WEGENER (1880 - 1930) German Geologist 423 PROPOSED (1900’S) THE ORIGIN OF OUR CONTINENTS BY MEANS OF PLATE TECTONICS OR CONTINENTAL DRIFT. PIERRE S. La PLACE (1749 - 1827) French Mathematician and Astronomer 424 PROPOSED A THEORY ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM PRE-DARWIN IDEAS ON BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION 424 JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist 426 ONE OF THE FIRST TAXONOMISTS TO DEVELOP (1809) A SYSTEM OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION. GEORGES L. BUFFON (1707 - 1788) French Naturalist 429 BELIEVED IN AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS WHERE NATURE WAS THE PRODUCT OF A GRAND DESIGN. THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766 - 1834) English Economist 431 PUBLISHED IN 1798 HIS BOOK, “ESSAY ON POPULATION” COMPARING HUMAN POPULATION, FOOD PRODUCTION AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS. LORENZ OKEN (1779 - 1851) German Naturalist 433 CHARLES LYELL (1797 - 1875) Scottish Geologist 435 ONE OF THE FIRST SCIENTISTS TO SUPPORT DARWIN’S EVOLUTION. THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY (1825 - 1895) English Biologist 438 ONE OF THE FIRST BIOLOGISTS TO ACCEPT AND POPULARIZE DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION ASA GRAY (1810 - 1888) American Botanist 441 SUPPORTED DARWINISM IN AMERICA BUT BELIEVED THAT NATURAL SELECTION WAS NOT A RANDOM FORCE BUT ONE GUIDED BY GOD. HERBERT SPENCER (1820 - 1903) English Sociologist 442 HE APPLIED DARWINISM TO THE HUMAN POPULATION AND POPULARIZED THE EXPRESSION, “ THE SURVIVAL OF “THE FITTEST”. ERNST H. HAECKEL (1834 - 1919) German Naturalist 444 RONALD A. FISHER (1890 - 1962) English Biologist 444 ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE (1823 - 1913) English Naturalist 446 PUBLISHED (1860’S) HIS IDEAS ON THE TRANSMUTATION of SPECIES by NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH WERE VERY SIMILAR TO DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION. ERASMUS DARWIN (1731 - 1802) English Physician and Naturalist 450 THE GRANDFATHER OF CHARLES DARWIN. WROTE HIS BOOK “ZOONOMIA” WHERE HE PROPOSED THE IDEA OF AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS IN NATURE. CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION 452 CHARLES R. DARWIN (1809 - 1882) English Naturalist and Geologist 452 PROPOSED (1859) THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, A THEORY OF EVOLUTION THAT REVOLUTIONIZED THE SCIENCES OF GENETICS AND BIOLOGY THE FAMOUS VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE TO SOUTH AMERICA 454 DARWIN’S RETURN TO ENGLAND FROM HIS FAMOUS VOYAGE 458 PREPARATIONS FOR DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION 459 SOME OF DARWIN’S INITIAL IDEAS ON EVOLUTION 461 THE PUBLICATION OF DARWIN’S GREAT BOOK ON EVOLUTION 462 EVALUATION OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION 468 AN ABSTRACT ON THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION 470 THREE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL LAWS DERIVED AND DEDUCED FROM DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION 470 THE EVOLUTIONARY TRINITY 472 EVOLUTIONISM VS CREATIONISM 473 A GREAT DILEMMA IN OUR BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND HISTORY 473 THE STORY OF GREGOR MENDEL, GENETICS AND THE LAWS OF HEREDITY 475 GREGOR MENDEL IS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS AND IN THE MID 1800’S HE PROPOSED HIS LAWS OF HEREDITY, WHICH REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD OF GENETICS AND BIOLOGY. SOME EARLY IDEAS ON GENETICS AND HYBRIDIZATION 476 GENETICS & HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE 18TH CENTURY 477 RUDOLF J. CAMERARIUS (1665 - 1721) German Botanist and Physician 479 FIRST TO RECOGNIZE (1694) THAT PLANT HAD SEX ORGANS EARLY STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY 480 JOSEPH G. KOLREUTER (1733 - 1806) German Botanist and Naturalist 482 CONDUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY OUTSTANDING STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION WITH TOBACCO PLANTS IN THE 1760’S. KARL FRIEDRICH VON GAERTNER (1772 - 1850) German Botanist 485 CONDUCTED SOME OF THE EARLY OUTSTANDING STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION WITH TOBACCO PLANTS IN THE 1820’S. CHARLES VICTOR NAUDIN (1815 - 1899) French Botanist and Naturalist 488 FRANCIS GALTON (1822 - 1911) English Anthropologist 489 GALTON WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO APPLY STATISTICS TO GENETIC STUDIES IN THE 1880’S. THE ERA OF GREGOR MENDEL’S GENETICS - 19TH CENTURY 493 GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822 - 1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist 493 GREGOR MENDEL WAS REGARDED AS THE FOUNDER OF THE NEW SCIENCE OF GENETICS. MENDEL PUBLISHED (1865 and 1869) HIS LAWS OF HEREDITY, which Revolutionized the world of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. RESULTS FROM MENDEL’S BREEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH PEA PLANTS 495 GENETICS AFTER GREGOR MENDEL 499 KARL WILHELM VON NAGELI (1817 - 1891) Swiss Botanist 500 HUGO MARIE De VRIES (1848 - 1935) Dutch Botanist and Geneticist 503 THE BRILLIANT GENETICIST WHO REDISCOVERED GREGOR MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE IN THE 1890’S. PROPONENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE GENES (1889) AND THE THEORY OF MUTATIONS (1886) THE CONCEPT OF THE GENES 503 REDISCOVERY OF GREGOR MENDEL’S PAPERS IN THE LATE 1890’S 504 THE MUTATION THEORY 505 KARL ERICH CORRENS (1864 - 1933) German Botanist and Geneticist 506 ERICH VON TSCHERMAK (1871 - 1962) Austrian Botanist and Agronomist 507 WILLIAM JASPER SPILLMAN (1863 - 1931) American Agronomist 509 FOUNDER OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC. THE FIRST AMERICAN AGRONOMIST TO REDISCOVER MENDEL’S LAWS OF HEREDITY. THE PLANT BREEDER WHO DEVELOPED THE WINTER-WHEAT VARIETIES FOR WASHINGTON STATE IN THE 1890’S. WILHELM L. JOHANNSEN (1857 - 1927) Danish Botanist and Geneticist 513 PROPOSED (1909) THE WORD GENE TO NAME MENDEL’S FACTORS OF HEREDITY. FIRST TO USE THE WORDS GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE WALTER S. SUTTON (1877 - 1916) American Geneticist and Physician 516 INDICATED (1902 and 1903) THAT ALL CHROMOSOMES EXISTED IN PAIRS AND THAT CHROMOSOMES CARRIED THE GENES OR FACTORS OF HEREDITY. ALSO THAT SEX CELLS CONTRIBUTED ONLY ONE OF THE CHROMOSOMES IN EACH PAIR WILLIAM BATESON (1861 - 1926) English Geneticist and Biologist 519 FIRST TO USE THE WORD GENETICS TO DESCRIBE THE STUDY OF HEREDITY. PROPOSED (1894) THE CONCEPT OF GENE-LINKAGE, WHICH WAS LATER CONFIRMED BY THOMAS MORGAN. TRANSLATED AND POPULARIZED MENDEL’ LAWS OF HEREDITY. THOMAS HUNT MORGAN (1866 - 1945) American Geneticist, Embryologist and Evolutionary Biologist 522 CHARACTERIZED THE ROLE OF CHROMOSOMES AND GENES IN THE PROCESS OF HEREDITY. REESTABLISHED THE CHROMOSOME -GENE THEORY PROPOSED BY WALTER SUTTON. CONFIRMED THE MUTATION THEORY PROPOSED BY De VRIES. PUBLISHED (1903) HIS BOOK, EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION, SUPPORTING THE CONCEPT OF THE EVOLUTION OF SPECIES. SUPPORTED MENDEL’S LAWS OF HEREDITY AND THE CONCEPT OF GENE- LINKAGE PROPOSED BY WILLIAM BATESON.. HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER (1890 - 1967) American Geneticist 528 ALBERT F. BLAKESLEE (1874 - 1954) American Botanist and Geneticist 530 FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916-2004) English Geneticist………………………………531 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Geneticist……………………………… 531 FRANCIS CRICK and JAMES WATSON CREATED in 1953 their MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which REVOLUTIONIZED the WORLD of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. THE MODERN GENETICS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 532 THE GREEN REVOLUTION 535 DR. NORMAN BORLAUG (1914 - 2009) American Geneticist and Agriculturist 536 THE FOUNDER OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION THE STORY OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 536 ABSTRACT ON THE FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE ……………………………………………………..540 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 575 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR 577 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 586

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Ades Web Magazine: Australia Volume 2 (by )
  • John BAPTIST:The Priest is Alive in Jeru... Volume 1 (by )
  • La Transformación (by )
  • Sacred Books (by )
  • Ettes Wettest : Aids for Aids, Cancers A... (by )
  • Aia He Kaheka (by )
  • Rhodesialeaks : Financial History of Eco... Volume 1 (by )
  • Survival Scenarios and Suggestions Volume 1 (by )
  • Родени Убийци (by )
  • الآداب والأخلاق : نشرة شهرية تعني بشؤون ... (by )
  • Segredos dos Cupons (by )
  • Hawaii Place Names (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library on the Kindle are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.