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Plos Computational Biology : Spectral Analysis of Input Spike Trains by Spike-timing- Dependent Plasticity, Volume 8

By Gilson, Matthieu

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Book Id: WPLBN0003941413
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos Computational Biology : Spectral Analysis of Input Spike Trains by Spike-timing- Dependent Plasticity, Volume 8  
Author: Gilson, Matthieu
Volume: Volume 8
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Computational Biology
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), PLoS Computational Biology
Historic
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Publisher: Plos

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Gilson, M. (n.d.). Plos Computational Biology : Spectral Analysis of Input Spike Trains by Spike-timing- Dependent Plasticity, Volume 8. Retrieved from http://kindle.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description : Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been observed in many brain areas such as sensory cortices, where it is hypothesized to structure synaptic connections between neurons. Previous studies have demonstrated how STDP can capture spiking information at short timescales using specific input configurations, such as coincident spiking, spike patterns and oscillatory spike trains. However, the corresponding computation in the case of arbitrary input signals is still unclear. This paper provides an overarching picture of the algorithm inherent to STDP, tying together many previous results for commonly used models of pairwise STDP. For a single neuron with plastic excitatory synapses, we show how STDP performs a spectral analysis on the temporal cross-correlograms between its afferent spike trains. The postsynaptic responses and STDP learning window determine kernel functions that specify how the neuron ‘‘sees’’ the input correlations. We thus denote this unsupervised learning scheme as ‘kernel spectral component analysis’ (kSCA). In particular, the whole input correlation structure must be considered since all plastic synapses compete with each other. We find that kSCA is enhanced when weight-dependent STDP induces gradual synaptic competition. For a spiking neuron with a ‘‘linear’’ response and pairwise STDP alone, we find that kSCA resembles principal component analysis (PCA). However, plain STDP does not isolate correlation sources in general, e.g., when they are mixed among the input spike trains. In other words, it does not perform independent component analysis (ICA). Tuning the neuron to a single correlation source can be achieved when STDP is paired with a homeostatic mechanism that reinforces the competition between synaptic inputs. Our results suggest that neuronal networks equipped with STDP can process signals encoded in the transient spiking activity at the timescales of tens of milliseconds for usual STDP.

 

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