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Physics Literature Collection


The World Public Library Physics Collection contains 263 conversations regarding the nature of physics.

 
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Special Relativity

Physics Literature

Excerpt: It was discovered at the end of the last century that the velocity of light c in the vacuum is the same for all observers.

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The Sphere and the Hyperboloid

Physics Literature

Excerpt: We now begin the study of manifolds we will look at a few examples before presentation of a manifold.

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Super Symmetry

Physics Literature

Excerpt: The set of instantaneous states of a quantum mechanical system form a complex Hilbert space H.

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Index Notation for Tensore

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Just as it is useful to represent numbers in the decimal (or other base) to perform calculations, it is useful to represent vectors by their components with respect to a basis.

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Thermodynamics of Magnetic Systems

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Thermodynamics is the study of heat.

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Vectory Fields

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Given any co-ordinate system in a neighborhood ...

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Vectory Spaces

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Victory space Is a set on which the operations of addition and multiplication by a number are defined ...

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Greek Seismology

By: Christopher L. Liner

Physics Literature

Excerpt: ?It will help also to keep in mind that gods cause none of these things and that neither heaven nor earth is overturned by the wrath of divinities. These phenomena have causes of their own? ...

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Introductory Geophysical Inveres Theory (Draft)

By: John A. Scales

Physics Literature

Excerpt: We think that gold is buried under the sand so we make measurements of gravity at various location on the surface.

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Introduction to Mechanics and Symmetry Q

By: Jerrold E. Marsden

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Symmetry and mechanics have been close partners since the time of the founding masters: Newton, Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, Poisson, Jacobi, Hamilton, Kelvin, Routh, Riemann, Noether, Poincare, Einstein, Schraodinger, Cartan, Dirac, and to this day, symmetry has continued to play a strong role, especially with the modern work of Kolmogorov, Arnold, Moser, Kirillov, Kostant, Smale, Souriau, Guillemin, Sternberg, and many others. This book is about these development...

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Chapter 1 a Voyage of Discovery

Physics Literature

Excerpt: The role of the ocean on weather and climate is often discussed in the news. Who has not heard of El Nino and changing weather patterns, the Atlantic hurricane season and storm surges. Yet, what exactly is the role of the ocean? And, why do we care?

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Chapter 2 the Historical Setting

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Our knowledge of oceanic currents, winds, waves, and tides goes back thousands of years. Polynesian navigators traded over long distances in the Pacific as early as 4000 bc (Service, 1996); Pytheas explored the Atlantic from Italy to Norway in 325 bc; Arabic traders used their knowledge of the reversing winds and currents in the Indian Ocean to establish trade routes to China in the Middle Ages and later to Zanzibar on the African coast; and the connection betwe...

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Chapter 3 the Physical Setting

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Earth is a prolate ellipsoid, an ellipse of rotation, with an equatorial radius of Re = 6, 378.1349 km (West, 1982) which is slightly greater than the polar radius of Rp = 6, 356.7497 km. The small equatorial bulge is due to Earth?s rotation. Distances on Earth are measured in many different units, the most common are degrees of latitude or longitude, meters, miles, and nautical miles. Latitude is the angle between the local vertical and the equatorial plane. A ...

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Chapter 4 Atmospheric Influences

Physics Literature

Excerpt: The sun and the atmosphere drive directly or indirectly almost all dynamical processes in the ocean. Geothermal heating of the oceans from below barely influences the deep layers in the ocean. The dominant external sources and sinks of energy are sunlight, evaporation, infrared emissions from the sea surface, and sensible heating of the sea by warm or cold winds. Winds drive the ocean?s surface circulation down to depths of around a kilometer. Deep mixing drives...

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Chapter 5 the Oceanic Heat Budget

Physics Literature

Excerpt: About half the sunlight reaching Earth is absorbed by the oceans and land, where it is temporarily stored near the surface. Only about a fifth of the available sunlight is directly absorbed by the atmosphere. Of the heat stored by the ocean, part is released to the atmosphere, mostly by evaporation and infrared radiation. The remainder is transported by currents to other areas especially high latitudes in winter. Solar radiation stored in the ocean is therefore ...

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Chapter 6 Temperature Salinity and Density

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Isolation, evaporation, and rain influence the distribution of temperature and salinity at the ocean?s surface. Changes in temperature and salinity lead to changes in the density of water at the surface, which can lead to convection and changes in the deeper circulation of the ocean. Once surface waters sink into the deeper ocean, they retain a distinctive relationship between temperature and salinity which helps oceanographers determine the source regions for s...

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Some Mathematics: The Equations of Motion

Physics Literature

Excerpt: In this chapter we consider the response of a fluid to internal and external forces. This leads to a derivation of some of the basic equations describing ocean dynamics. In the next chapter, we will consider the influence of viscosity, and in chapter 12 we will consider the consequences of vortices. Fluid mechanics used in oceanography is based on Newtonian mechanics modified by our evolving understanding of turbulence. Conservation of mass, momentum, angular mo...

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Equations of Motion with Viscosity

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Throughout most of the interior of the ocean and atmosphere friction is relatively small, and we can safely assume that the flow is frictionless. At the boundaries, friction, in the form of viscosity, becomes important. This thin, viscous layer is called a boundary layer. Within the layer, the velocity of the flow slows from values typical of the interior to zero at a solid boundary. If the boundary is not solid, then the boundary layer is a thin layer of rapidl...

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Response of the Upper Ocean to Winds

Physics Literature

Excerpt: If you have had a chance to travel around the United States, you may have noticed that the climate of the east coast differs considerably from that on the west coast. Why? Why is the climate of Charleston, South Carolina so different from that of San Diego, although both are near 32?N, and both are on or near the ocean? Charleston has 125?150 cm of rain a year, San Diego has 25?50 cm, Charleston has hot summers, San Diego has cool summers. Or why is the climate ...

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Geostrophic Currents

Physics Literature

Excerpt: Within the ocean?s interior away from the top and bottom Ekman layers, for horizontal distances exceeding a few tens of kilometers, and for times exceeding a few days, horizontal pressure gradients in the ocean almost exactly balance the Coriolis force resulting from horizontal currents. This balance is known as the geostrophic approximation. The dominant forces acting in the vertical are the vertical pressure gradient and the weight of the water. The two balanc...

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