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Gestalt Psychology


Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt - "essence or shape of an entity's complete form") of the Berlin School is a theory of mind and brain positing that the operational principle of the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies. The Gestalt effect is the form-generating capability of our senses, particularly with respect to the visual recognition of figures and whole forms instead of just a collection of simple lines and curves. In psychology, gestaltism is often opposed to structuralism and Wundt.

 
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Zur Freundlichen Erinnerungoscar Maria Graf

By: Oscar Maria Graf

Excerpt: I. Weit hatte es der Schlosser Peter Windel im Laufe einer beinahe zwanzigjaehrigen Arbeitszeit bei der Motorenfabrik Jank gebracht. Als blutjunger Geselle trat er damals in den Dienst und heute war er erster Werkmeister. Seine stumpfe, schweigende Energie, sein fanatischer Lerneifer und seine fast pedantische, aber keineswegs devote Puenktlichkeit hatten ihm Respekt und Achtung verschafft, bei den Arbeitern sowohl, wie bei den Vorgesetzten. Beliebt war er nicht...

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Proceedings of the Introduction to Neutrosophic Physics : Unmatter...

By: Florentin Smarandache, Editor

Neutrosophic Physics. Let be a physical entity (i.e. concept, notion, object, space, field, idea, law, property, state, attribute, theorem, theory, etc.), be the opposite of , and be their neutral (i.e. neither nor but in between). Neutrosophic Physics is a mixture of two or three of these entities , , and that hold together. Therefore, we can have neutrosophic fields, and neutrosophic objects, neutrosophic states, etc. Neutrosophic Physics is an exten...

2. The Gist of the Present Epistemology: The Surjective Qualon “Mere eruditic logic often turns – as has been generically said – philosophy into folly, science into superstition, and art into pedantry. How far away from creation and solitude, from play and imagination, from day and night, from noon and silhouette it is! How Genius is precisely everything other than being merely situational, alone as the Universe.” Herein we present a four-fold asymmetric theory of R...

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Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung

By: Oscar Maria Graf

Weit hatte es der Schlosser Peter Windel im Laufe einer beinahe zwanzigjaehrigen Arbeitszeit bei der Motorenfabrik Jank gebracht. Als blutjunger Geselle trat er damals in den Dienst und heute war er erster Werkmeister. Seine stumpfe, schweigende Energie, sein fanatischer Lerneifer und seine fast pedantische, aber keineswegs devote Puenktlichkeit hatten ihm Respekt und Achtung verschafft, bei den Arbeitern sowohl, wie bei den Vorgesetzten. Beliebt war er nicht, aber es wa...

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Wissenshaft der Logik Volume 2

By: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Vorrede zur ersten Ausgabe. Die vOllige UmAnderung, welche die philosophische Denkweise seit etwa fUnf und zwanzig Jahren unter uns erlitten, der hohere Standpunkt, den das Selbstbewubtseyn des Geistes in dieser Zeitperiode uber sich erreicht hat, hat bisher noch wenig Einflub auf die Gestalt der Logik gehabt. Dasjenige, was vor diesem Zeitraum Metaphysik hieb, ist, so zu sagen, mit Stumpf und Stiel ausgerottet worden, und aus der Reihe der Wissenschaften verschwunden. W...

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Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung

By: Oscar Maria Graf

Weit hatte es der Schlosser Peter Windel im Laufe einer beinahe zwanzigjahrigen Arbeitszeit bei der Motorenfabrik Jank gebracht. Als blutjunger Geselle trat er damals in den Dienst und heute war er erster Werkmeister. Seine stumpfe, schweigende Energie, sein fanatischer Lerneifer und seine fast pedantische, aber keineswegs devote Punktlichkeit hatten ihm Respekt und Achtung verschafft, bei den Arbeitern sowohl, wie bei den Vorgesetzten. Beliebt war er nicht, aber es war ...

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Mutter und Kind

By: Friedrich Hebbel

Eben grauet der Morgen. Noch stehen die zitternden Sterne An der Woelbung des Himmels, die kaum am Rande zu blauen Anfaengt, waehrend die Mitte noch schwarz, wie die Erde, herabhaengt. Frierend kriechen die Waechter mit Spiess und Knarre nach Hause, Doch sie erloeste die Uhr und nicht die steigende Sonne, Denn noch ruhen die Buerger der Stadt und beduerfen des Schutzes Gegen den schleichenden Dieb, den spaehende Augen gewaehren. Wie der Hahn auch rufe, und wie vom Turme ...

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Ice Sheet Model Dependency of the Simulated Greenland Ice Sheet in...

By: B. De Boer; R. M. Deconto; A. M. Dolan; E. J. Stone; S. J. Koenig; J. Savage; A. Abe-ouchi; F. Saito; D. J. Lunt; R. Van De Wal; D. Pollard; D. J. Hill; A. Quiquet

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, 611 N. Pleasant St, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. The understanding of the nature and behavior of ice sheets in past warm periods is important for constraining the potential impacts of future climate change. The Pliocene warm period (between 3.264 and 3.025 Ma) saw global temperatures similar to those projected for future climates; nevertheless, Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrai...

Alley, R. B., Clark, P. U., Huybrechts, P., and Joughin, I.: Ice-sheet and sea-level changes, Science, 310, 456–60, 2005.; Alley, R., Andrews, J., and Brigham-Grette, J.: History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: paleoclimatic insights, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 29, 1728–1756, 2010.; Bamber, J. and Aspinall, W. P.: An expert judgement assessment of future sea level rise from the ice sheets, Nat. Clim. Change, 3, 424–427, 2013.; Berger, A.: An exceptionally long interglacial ahead?...

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Mechanisms and Time Scales of Glacial Inception Simulated with an ...

By: A. Ganopolski; M. Claussen; C. Kubatzki; R. Calov

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. We investigate glacial inception and glacial thresholds in the climate-cryosphere system utilising the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2, which includes modules for atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, ocean and interactive ice sheets. The latter are described by the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. A bifurcation which represents glacial incept...

Andrews, J. T. and Mahaffy, M. A. W.: Growth rate of the Laurentide ice sheet and sea level lowering (with emphasis on the 115000 BP sea level low), Quaternary Res., 6, 167–183, 1976.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Archer, D. and Ganopolski, A.: A movable trigger: Fossil fuel CO2 and the onset of the next glaciation, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 6, 1525–2027, 2005.; Brovki...

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Simulation of the Last Glacial Cycle with a Coupled Climate Ice-sh...

By: M. Claussen; R. Calov; A. Ganopolski

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. A new version of the Earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, which includes the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, is used to simulate the last glacial cycle forced by variations of the Earth's orbital parameters and atmospheric concentration of major greenhouse gases. The climate and ice-sheet components of the model are coupled bi-directionally thr...

Berger, A., Li, X. S., and Loutre, M.F: Modeling northern hemisphere ice volume over the last 3 million years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 18, 1–11, 1999.; Berger A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Abe-Ouchi, A., Segawa, T., and Saito, F.: Climatic Conditions for modelling the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout the ice age cycle, Clim. Past, 3, 423–438, 2007.; Bonelli, S., Charbit, S., Kagey...

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The Role of Orbital Forcing, Carbon Dioxide and Regolith in 100 Ky...

By: R. Calov; A. Ganopolski

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. The origin of the 100 kyr cyclicity, which dominates ice volume variations and other climate records over the past million years, remains debatable. Here, using a comprehensive Earth system model of intermediate complexity, we demonstrate that both strong 100 kyr periodicity in the ice volume variations and the timing of glacial terminations during past 800 kyr can be successfully simulate...

Paillard, D.: The timing of Pleistocene glaciations from a simple multiple-state climate model, Nature, 391, 378–381, 1998.; Bauer, E. and Ganopolski, A.: Aeolian dust modeling over the past four glacial cycles with CLIMBER-2, Global Planet. Change, 74, 49–60, 2010.; Berger A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Berger, A., Loutre, M. F., and Gallee, H.: Sensitivity of the LLN climate model to th...

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Greenland Ice Sheet Sensitivity and Sea Level Contribution in the ...

By: R. M. Deconto; E. J. Stone; A. M. Dolan; B. De Boer; F. Saito; S. J. Koenig; R. Van De Wal; J. Savage; D. J. Hill; A. Abe-ouchi; D. Pollard; A. Quiquet; D. J. Lunt

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, 611 N. Pleasant St, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. The understanding of the nature and behavior of ice sheets in past warm periods is important to constrain the potential impacts of future climate change. The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (2.97 to 3.29 Ma) has global temperatures similar to those projected for future climates, nevertheless Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained. W...

Alley, R., Andrews, J., and Brigham-Grette, J.: History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: paleoclimatic insights, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 29, 1728–1756, 2010.; Alley, R. B., Clark, P. U., Huybrechts, P., and Joughin, I.: Ice-sheet and sea-level changes, Science, 310, 456–460, 2005.; Ballantyne, A., Rybczynski, N., Baker, P., Harington, C., and White, D.: Pliocene Arctic temperature constraints from the growth rings and isotopic composition of fossil larch, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl....

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Simulation of the Last Glacial Cycle with a Coupled Climate Ice-sh...

By: M. Claussen; R. Calov; A. Ganopolski

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. A new version of the Earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, which includes the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, is used to simulate the last glacial cycle forced by variations of the Earth's orbital parameters and atmospheric concentration of major greenhouse gases. The climate and ice-sheet components of the model are coupled bi-directionally thr...

Calov, R. and Hutter, K.: The thermomechanical response of the Greenland ice sheet to various climate scenarios, Clim. Dynam., 12, 243–260, 1996.; Abe-Ouchi, A., Segawa, T., and Saito, F.: Climatic Conditions for modelling the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout the ice age cycle, Clim. Past, 3, 423–438, 2007.; Berger A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Berger, A., Li, X. S., and Loutre,...

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Mechanisms and Time Scales of Glacial Inception Simulated with an ...

By: A. Ganopolski; M. Claussen; C. Kubatzki; R. Calov

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. We investigate glacial inception and glacial thresholds in the climate-cryosphere system utilising the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2, which includes modules for atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, ocean and interactive ice sheets. The latter are described by the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. A bifurcation which represents ...

Andrews, J. T. and Mahaffy, M. A. W.: Growth rate of the Laurentide ice sheet and sea level lowering (with emphasis on the 115 000 BP sea level low), Quat. Res., 6, 167–183, 1976.; Archer, D. and Ganopolski, A.: A movable trigger: Fossil fuel CO2 and the onset of the next glaciation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, 1525–2027, 2005.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Bronste...

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The Role of Orbital Forcing, Carbon Dioxide and Regolith in 100 Ky...

By: A. Ganopolski; R. Calov

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. The origin of the 100 kyr cyclicity which dominates ice volume variations and other climate records over the past million years remains debatable. Here, using a comprehensive Earth system model of intermediate complexity, we demonstrate that both strong 100 kyr periodicity in the ice volume variations and the timing of glacial terminations during past 800 kyr can be successfully simulated ...

Bauer, E. and Ganopolski, A.: Aeolian dust modeling over the past four glacial cycles with CLIMBER-2, Global Planet. Change, 74, 49–60, 2010.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic change, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Berger, A., Loutre, M. F., and Gallee, H.: Sensitivity of the LLN climate model to the astronomical and CO2 forcings over the last 200 ky, Clim. Dynam., 14, 615–629, 1998.; Berger, A., Li, X. S., an...

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A Chaotically Driven Model Climate: Extreme Events and Snapshot At...

By: T. Tél; Gy. Károlyi; T. Bódai

Description: Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest, 1117, Hungary. In a low-order chaotic global atmospheric circulation model the effects of deterministic chaotic driving are investigated. As a result of driving, peak-over-threshold type extreme events, e.g. cyclonic activity in the model, become more extreme, with increased frequency of recurrence. When the characteristic time of the driving is comparable to that of the ...

Altmann, E. G. and Kantz, H.: Recurrence time analysis, long-term correlations, and extreme events, Phys. Rev. E, 71, 056106, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.056106, 2005.; Arnold, L.: Random Dynamical Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.; Blender, R., Fraedrich, K., and Sienz, F.: Extreme event return times in long-term memory processes near 1/f, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 557–565, doi:10.5194/npg-15-557-2008, 2008.;...

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A Novel Method for Analyzing the Process of Abrupt Climate Change ...

By: W. Hou; G. L. Feng; P. C. Yan

Description: College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. A climate system which is transitioning from one state to another is known as an abrupt climate change. Most of the recent studies regarding abrupt climate change have focused on the changes occurring before and after the abrupt change point, while little attention has been given to the transition process which occurs when the system breaks away from the original state to a new state. ...

Alexander, R., Reinhard, C., and Andrey, G.: Multistability and critical thresholds of the Greenland ice sheet, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 429–432, 2012.; Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke, R. A., Pierrehumbert Jr., R. T., Rhines, P. B., Stocker, T. F., Talley, L. D., and Wallace, J. M.: Abrupt climate change, Science, 299, 2005–2010, 2003.; Baker, M. B. and Charlson, R, J.: Bistability of CCN concentrations and thermodynamics...

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A Novel Method for Analyzing the Process of Abrupt Climate Change ...

By: G. L. Feng; W. Hou; P. C. Yan

Description: College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, China. A climate system which is transitioning from one state to another is known as an abrupt climate change. Most of the recent studies regarding abrupt climate change have focused on the changes occurring before and after the abrupt change point, while little attention has been given to the transition process which occurs when the system breaks away from the original state to a new state. In...

Meehl, G. A., Branstator, G. W., and Washington, W. M.: Tropical Pacific interannual variability and CO2 climate change, J. Climate, 6, 42–63, 1993.; Alexander, R., Reinhard, C., and Andrey, G.: Multistability and critical thresholds of the Greenland ice sheet, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 429–432, 2012.; Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpeck, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke, R. A., Pierrehumbert Jr., R. T., Rhines, P. B., Stocker, T. F., Talley, L. D., ...

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Schreiben → Senden → Schauen? – Medienmacht Und Medienohnmacht Im ...

By: A. Schlottmann; T. Felgenhauer

Description: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Institut f. Geographie, Löbdergraben 32, 07743 Jena, Germany. Die aktuelle sozialgeographische Diskussion richtet ihr Augenmerk zunehmend auf die Rolle der Medien bei der Ausprägung und sozialen Etablierung symbolischer Geographien. Insbesondere die Frage nach ihrem Machtpotential bei der Durchsetzung bestimmter Weltbilder wird gestellt.

Die vorliegende Studie beschäftigt sich anhand des Beispiels des Mittelde...

Brinker, K.: Linguistische Textanalyse. Eine Einführung in Grundbegriffe und Methoden, Schmidt, Berlin, 2001.; Felgenhauer, T.: Argumentieren als regionalisierende Praxis: \glqq Mitteldeutschland\grqq-Deutungen des MDR, Dissertationsschrift Universität Jena, Jena, 2006.; Felgenhauer, T., Mihm, M., and Schlottmann, A.: Langage, médias et régionalisation symbolique. La fabrication de la Mitteldeutschland, Géographie et cultures, 47, 85–102, 2003.; Felgenhauer, T., Mihm, M....

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Simulating the Greenland Ice Sheet Under Present-day and Palaeo Co...

By: A. Ganopolski; M. Perrette; A. Robinson; R. Calov

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. In this paper, we propose a new sub-grid scale parameterization for the ice discharge into the ocean through outlet glaciers and inspect the role of different observational and palaeo constraints for the choice of an optimal set of model parameters. This parameterization was introduced into the polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, which is coupled to the regional climate model of interme...

Applegate, P. J., Kirchner, N., Stone, E. J., Keller, K., and Greve, R.: An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior, The Cryosphere, 6, 589–606, doi:10.5194/tc-6-589-2012, 2012.; Bales, R. C., Guo, Q., Shen, D., McConnell, J. R., Du, G., Burkhart, J. F., Spikes, V. B., Hanna, E., and Cappelen, J.: Annual accumulation for Greenland updated using ice core data develo...

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Simulating the Greenland Ice Sheet Under Present-day and Palaeo Co...

By: M. Perrette; A. Robinson; A. Ganopolski; R. Calov

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. In this paper, we propose a new sub-grid scale parameterization for the ice discharge into the ocean through outlet glaciers and inspect the role of different observational and palaeo constraints for the choice of an optimal set of model parameters. This parameterization was introduced into the polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, which is coupled to the regional climate model of in...

Applegate, P. J., Kirchner, N., Stone, E. J., Keller, K., and Greve, R.: An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior, The Cryosphere, 6, 589–606, doi:10.5194/tc-6-589-2012, 2012.; Bales, R. C., Guo, Q., Shen, D., McConnell, J. R., Du, G., Burkhart, J. F., Spikes, V. B., Hanna, E., and Cappelen, J.: Annual accumulation for Greenland updated using ice core data develo...

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