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Modeling and Measurement of Two-layer-canopy Interception Losses i...

By: Y. M. Jiang; G. H. Huang; G. M. Zeng; X. L. Zhang; G. Zhang; W. Tan; J. B. Li; R. J. Xiang; J. M. Yao

Description: College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, P.R. China. The original Gash analytical model and the sparse Gash's model have been applied to simulate rainfall interception losses from the two canopy layers in Shaoshan forest of central-south China during 2003. The total estimated interception loss from the two canopy layers is 478.4 mm with an error of 12.4 mm or 2.7% of total measured interception loss (466.0 mm). Bo...

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Modelling Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in a Mediterranean River C...

By: J. L. Riera; A. Rosell-melé; F. Caille

Description: Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra 08193, Spain. Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmenta...

Kirkby, M. J., Jones, R. J. A., Irvine, B., Gobin, A., Govers, G., Cerdan, O., Van Rompaey, A. J. J., Le Bissonnais, Y., Daroussin, J., King, D., Montanarella, L., Grimm, M., Vieillefont, V., Puigdefabregas, J., Boer, M., Kosmas, C., Yassoglou, N., Tsara, M., Mantel, S., Van Lynden, G. J., and Huting, J.: Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment: The PESERA Map, Version 1 October 2003, Explanation of Special Publication Ispra 2004 No.73 (S.P.I.04.73). European Soil Bure...

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Hydrological Connectivity Inferred from Diatom Transport Through t...

By: J. Frentress; C. E. Wetzel; L. Ector; L. Hoffmann; N. Martínez-carreras; L. Pfister; J. J. McDonnell

Description: Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Department Environmental Research and Innovation, Belvaux, Luxembourg. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are one of the most common and diverse algal groups (ca. 200 000 species, ≈ 10–200 μm, unicellular, eukaryotic). Here we investigate the potential of aerial diatoms (i.e. diatoms nearly exclusively occurring outside water bodies, in wet, moist or temporarily dry places) to infer surface hydrological conne...

Beven, K.: TOPMODEL: a critique, Hydrol. Process., 11, 1069–1085, 1997.; Ali, G. A. and Roy, A. G.: Shopping for hydrologically representative connectivity metrics in a humid temperate forested catchment, Water Resour. Res., 46, W12544, doi:10.1029/2010WR009442, 2010.; Ali, G. A., Roy, A. G., Turmel, M. C., and Courchesne, F.: Source-to-stream connectivity assessment through end-member mixing analysis, J. Hydrol., 392, 1...

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Integrated Hydrological Modelling of Small- and Medium-sized Water...

By: C. A. Shoemaker; Y. Peng; J. Chu; C. Zhang

Description: Institute of Water Resources and Flood Control, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China. Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to the inaccurate water storage data, including both topologic parameters and operational rules. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using the satellite-based dataset Landsat, a...

Arnold, J. G. and Fohrer, N.: SWAT2000: current capabilities and research opportunities in applied watershed modelling, Hydrol. Process., 19(3), 563–572, 2005.; Borah, D. K. and Bera, M.: Watershed-scale hydrologic and nonpoint-source pollution models: review of applications, T. ASAE, 47(3), 789–803, 2004.; Chorography Editorial Committee of Jilin Province: Jilin Province Chorography Population, Jilin People's Publishing House, Changchun, 1991.; Frazier, P. S. and Page, ...

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Searching for the Holy Grail of Scientific Hydrology: QT= H(S←R←)A...

By: K. Beven

Description: Environment Science/Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK. Representative Elementary Watershed concepts provide a useful scale-independent framework for the representation of hydrological processes. The balance equations that underlie the concepts, however, require the definition of boundary flux closures. The relationship between internal state variables of an REW element and the boundary fluxes will be nonlinear, hy...

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Spatial Pattern Analysis of Landslide Using Landscape Metrics and ...

By: C.-f. Wu; H.-j. Chu; Y.-p. Lin

Description: Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Da-an District, Taipei City 106, Taiwan, China. The Chi-Chi Earthquake of September 1999 in Central Taiwan registered a moment magnitude MW of 7.6 on the Richter scale, causing widespread landslides. Subsequent typhoons associated with heavy rainfalls triggered the landslides. The study investigates multi-temporal landslide images from s...

Ayalew, L. and Yamagishi, H.: The application of GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan, Geomorphology, 65, 15–31, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.06.010, 2005.; Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24(1), 43–69, 1979.; Can, T., Nefeslioglu, H. A., Gokceoglu, C., Sonmez, H., and Duman, T. Y.: Susceptibility assessmen...

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A Generic Method for Hydrological Drought Identification Across Di...

By: H. A. J. Van Lanen; P. Hazenberg; R. Uijlenhoet; M. H. J. Van Huijgevoort

Description: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. The identification of hydrological drought at global scale has received considerable attention during the last decade. However, climate-induced variation in runoff across the world makes such analyses rather complicated. This especially holds for the drier regions of the world (both cold and warm), where, for a considerable period of time, zero runoff c...

Andreadis, K. M., Clark, E. A., Wood, A. W., Hamlet, A. F., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Twentieth-century drought in the conterminous United States, J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 985–1001, 2005.; Anyah, R. O., Weaver, C. P., Miguez-Macho, G., Fan, Y., and Robock, A.: Incorporating water table dynamics in climate modeling: 3. Simulated groundwater influence on coupled land-atmosphere variability, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D07103, doi...

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Comparing Bias Correction Methods in Downscaling Meteorological Va...

By: C. Zammit; Y. N. Chen; J. Yang; G. H. Fang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xinjiang, China. Water resources are essential to the ecosystem and social economy in the desert and oasis of the arid Tarim River Basin, Northwest China, and expected to be vulnerable to climate change. Regional Climate Models (RCM) have been proved to provide more reliable results for regional impact study of climate c...

Anderson Jr., W. P., Storniolo, R. E., and Rice, J. S.: Bank thermal storage as a sink of temperature surges in urbanized streams, J. Hydrol., 409, 525–537, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.059, 2011.; Arnell, N. W.: Factors controlling the effects of climate change on river flow regimes in a humid temperate environment, J. Hydrol., 132, 321–342, doi:10.1016/00...

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Evaluating the Utah Energy Balance's (Ueb) Snow Model in the Noah ...

By: K.-l. Hsu; S. Sorooshian; J. Li; R. Sultana

Description: California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA. Noah (version 2.7.1), the community land-surface model (LSM) of NCEP-NCAR, which is widely used to describe the land-surface processes either in stand-alone or in coupled land–atmospheric model systems, is recognized because snow–water equivalent (SWE) can be underestimated. Noah's SWE bias can be attributed to its simple snow sub-model, which does not effectively describe the physical processes d...

Albert, M. R. and Krajeski, G. N.: A fast, physically-based point snow melt model for distributed applications, Hydrol. Process., 12, 1809–1824, 1998.; Anderson, E. A.: A Point Energy and Mass Balance Model of a Snow Cover, NOAA Technical Report NWS 19, US Department of Commerce, Silver Springs, Maryland, 150 pp., 1976.; Arons, E. M. and Colbeck, S. C.: Geometry of heat and mass transfer in dry snow: a review of theory and experiment, Rev. Geophys., 33, 463–493, 1995.; B...

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Errata : Volume 8, Issue 4 (30/11/-0001)

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Comparing Soil Moisture Retrievals from Smos and Ascat Over France...

By: W. Wagner; E. Zakharova; S. Lafont; Y. Kerr; J.-p. Wigneron; J.-c. Calvet; M. Parrens

Description: CNRM-GAME, URA1357, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France. The first products derived over France in 2010 from the L-band brightness temperatures (Tb) measured by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite, launched in November 2009, were compared with the surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates produced by the C-band Advanced Scatterometer, ASCAT, launched in 2006 on board METOP-A. SMOS and ASCAT SSM products were compared wit...

Albergel, C., Rüdiger, C., Pellarin, T., Calvet, J.-C., Fritz, N., Froissard, F., Suquia, D., Petitpa, A., Piguet, B., and Martin, E.: From near-surface to root-zone soil moisture using an exponential filter: an assessment of the method based on in-situ observations and model simulations, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1323–1337, doi:10.5194/hess-12-1323-2008, 2008.; Albergel, C., Rüdiger, C., Carrer, D., Calvet, J.-...

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Impacts of Climate Change on Temperature, Precipitation and Hydrol...

By: L. Backman; J. Jakkila; N. Veijalainen; B. Vehviläinen; T. Olsson; J. Kaurola

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00101, Helsinki, Finland. Assessment of climate change impacts on climate and hydrology on catchment scale requires reliable information about the average values and climate fluctuations of the past, present and future. Regional climate models (RCMs) used in impact studies often produce biased time series of meteorological variables. In this study bias correction (BC) of RCM temperature and precip...

Andréasson, J., Bergström, S., Carlsson, B., Graham, L., and Lindström, G.: Hydrological change – climate change impact simulations for Sweden, Ambio, 33, 228–234, 2004.; Beldring, S., Engen-Skaugen, T., Førland, E., and Roald, L.: Climate change impacts on hydrological processes in Norway based on two methods for transferring RCM results to meteorological station sites, Tellus A, 60, 439–450, 2008.; Bergström, S.: Development and application of a conceptual runoff model...

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Reconstructing the Duty of Water: a Study of Emergent Norms in Soc...

By: J. L. Wescoat Jr.

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. This paper assesses changing norms of water use known as the duty of water. It is a case study in historical socio-hydrology, a line of research useful for anticipating changing social values with respect to water. The duty of water is currently defined as the amount of water reasonably required to irrigate a substantial crop with careful management and without waste on a given tract ...

Crofton, J.: Report on the Ganges Canal, Roorkee, 1864.; Agarwal, A. and Narain, S.: Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall and Potential of India's Traditional Water Harvesting System, Center for Science and Environment, Delhi, 1997.; Ali, I.: Punjab Under Imperialism: 1885–1947, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1988.; Andrew, J. H. and Allen, J. S.: A confirmation of the location of the 1712 Dudley Castle Newcomen engine at Coneygree, Tipton, Int. J. Hist. Eng. Technol., 79, 174–182,...

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Analyzing the Relationship Between Peak Runoff Discharge and Land-...

By: J.-m. Guldmann; I.-y. Yeo

Description: Department of Geography, The University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. This paper investigates the impacts of land-use patterns on watershed hydrology and characterizes the nature of this relationship. The approach combines a spatially explicit, process-based hydrological simulation model, a land-use optimization model, the Integrated Hydrological and Land-Use Optimization (IHLUO) model, and an extensive GIS database. Numerical experiments ar...

Aitkin, M. and Clayton, D.: The fitting of exponential, Weibull and extreme value distributions to complex censored survival data using GLIM, Appl. Stat., 29, 156–163, 1980.; Beven, K. J.: Changing ideas in hydrology: the case of physically based models, J. Hydrol., 105, 157–172, 1989.; Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S., and Williams, J. R.: Large Area Hydrologic Modeling and Assessment – Part I: Model Development, J. Am. Water Resour. As. (JAWRA), 34(1), 73–...

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The Impact of Forest Regeneration on Streamflow in 12 Mesoscale Hu...

By: F. N. Scatena; H. E. Beck; L. A. Bruijnzeel; J. Schellekens; T. R. McVicar; A. I. J. M. Van Dijk

Description: Critical Zone Hydrology Group, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Although regenerating forests make up an increasingly large portion of humid tropical landscapes, little is known of their water use and effects on streamflow (Q). Since the 1950s the island of Puerto Rico has experienced widespread abandonment of pastures and agricultural lands, followed by forest rege...

García-Martinó, A. R., Warner, G. S., Scatena, F. N., and Civco, D. L.: Rainfall, Runoff and Elevation Relationships in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, Caribbean J. Sci., 32, 413–424, 1996.; Giambelluca, T. W., Scholz, F. G., Bucci, S. J., Meinzer, F. C., Goldstein, G., Hoffmann, W. A., Franco, A. C., and Buchert, M. P.: Evapotranspiration and energy balance of Brazilian savannas with contrasting tree density, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 149, 1365–1376, 2009.; Gleason,...

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Prediction of Snowmelt Derived Streamflow in a Wetland Dominated P...

By: C. J. Westbrook; J. W. Pomeroy; X. Guo; X. Fang; A. G. Minke; T. Brown

Description: Centre for Hydrology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. The Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) was used to create a prairie hydrological model for Smith Creek Research Basin (~400 km2), east-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Physically based modules were sequentially linked in CRHM to simulate snow processes, frozen soils, variable contributing area and wetland storage and runoff generation. Five representative basins...

Armstrong, R. N., Pomeroy, J. W., and Martz, L. W.: Evaluation of three evaporation estimation methods in a Canadian prairie landscape, Hydrol. Process., 22, 2801–2815, doi:10.1002/hyp.7054, 2008.; Berthold, S., Bentley, L. R., and Hayashi, M.: Integrated hydrogeological and geophysical study of depression-focused groundwater recharge in the Canadian prairies, Water Resour. Res., 40, W06505, doi:10.1029/2003WR002982, 2004.; Brooks, R. T. and Hayashi, M.: Depth-area-volum...

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Systems Analysis – a New Paradigm and Decision Support Tools for t...

By: M. Bruen

Description: Centre for Water Resources Research, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland. In the early days of Systems Analysis the focus was on providing tools for optimisation, modelling and simulation for use by experts. Now there is a recognition of the need to develop and disseminate tools to assist in making decisions, negotiating compromises and communicating preferences that can easily be used by stakeholders without the need for ...

Pahl-Wostl, C.: The implications of complexity for integrated resources management, Environmental Modelling Software, 22, 561–569, 2007b.; Benayoun, R., Roy, B., and Sussman, N.: Manual de Referance du Programme ELECTRE, Note de Synthèse et Formation, No. 25, Direction Scientifique SEMA, Paris, 1966.; Bruce, C.: Modelling the environmental collaboration process: A deductive approach., Ecological Economics, 59, 275–286, 2006.; Bruen, M.: Decision Support Systems. In River...

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Large Zero-tension Plate Lysimeters for Soil Water and Solute Coll...

By: A. Peters; W. Durner

Description: Institut für Geoökologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany. Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the ...

Bergstrom, L.: Nitrate leaching and drainage from annual and perennial crop in tile drained plots and lysimeters, J. Environ. Qual., 16, 11–18, 1987.; Boll, J., Steenhuis, T. S., and Selker, J. S.: Fiberglass wicks for sampling of water and solutes in the vadose zone, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 56, 701–707, 1992.; Boll, J., Selker, J. S., Shalit, G., and Steenhuis, T. S.: Frequency distribution of water and solute transport properties derived from pan sampler data, Water Res...

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Integrating Ascat Surface Soil Moisture and Geov1 Leaf Area Index ...

By: J.-f. Mahfouf; J.-c. Calvet; A. L. Barbu; S. Lafont

Description: CNRM-GAME, CNRS – UMR3589, Météo France, Toulouse, France. The land monitoring service of the European Copernicus programme has developed a set of satellite-based biogeophysical products, including surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI). This study investigates the impact of joint assimilation of remotely sensed SSM derived from Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) backscatter data and the Copernicus Global Land GEOV1 satellite-b...

Baret, F., Weiss, M., Lacaze, R., Camacho, F., Makhmarad, H., Pacholczyk, P., and Smetse, B.: GEOV1: LAI, FAPAR essential climate variables and FCOVER global time series capitalizing over existing products, Part 1: Principles of development and production, Remote Sens. Environ., 137, 299–309, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.12.027, 2013.; Bartalis, Z., Wagner, W., Naeimi, V., Hasenauer, S., Scipal, K., Bonekamp, H., Figa, J....

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Evidence for Deep Sub-surface Flow Routing in Forested Upland Wale...

By: A. H. Haria; P. Shand

Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK. Upland streamflow generation has traditionally been modelled as a simple rainfall-runoff mechanism. However, recent hydrochemical studies conducted in upland Wales have highlighted the potentially important role of bedrock groundwater in streamflow generation processes. To investigate these processes, a detailed and novel field stud...

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