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Ocean Acidification Shows Negligible Impacts on High-latitude Bact...

By: S. Owens; H. Schunck; M. Sperling; J. A. Gilbert; J. Laroche; L. Bittner; A.-s. Roy; J. G. Caporaso; J. I. Nissimov; S. M. Gibbons; U. Riebesell; S. Romac

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105, Kiel, Germany. The impact of ocean acidification and carbonation on microbial community structure was assessed during a large-scale in situ costal pelagic mesocosm study, included as part of the EPOCA 2010 Arctic campaign. The mesocosm experiment included ambient conditions (fjord) and nine mesocosms, with pCO2 range from ~145 to ~1420 Μatm. Samples collected...

Abell, G. C. J. and Bowman, J. P.: Ecological and biogeographic relationships of class Flavobacteria in the Southern Ocean, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 51, 265–277, 2005.; Agogué, H., Lamy, D., Neal, P. R., Sogin, M. L., and Herndl, G. J.: Water mass-specificity of bacterial communities in the North Atlantic revealed by massively parallel sequencing, Mol. Ecol., 20, 258–274, 2011.; Allgaier, M., Riebesell, U., Vogt, M., Thyrhaug, R., and Grossart, H.-P.: Coupling of heterotro...

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The Implications of Microbial and Substrate Limitation for the Fat...

By: J. W. Harden; Q. Zhuang; A. D. McGuire; Y. Liu; Z. Fan; K. P. Wickland; Y. He

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. The large magnitudes of soil carbon stocks provide potentially large feedbacks to climate changes, highlighting the need to better understand and represent the environmental sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. Most soil carbon decomposition models rely on empirical relationships omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms and their response to cl...

ACIA: Impacts of a Warming Arctic-Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 144 pp., 2004.; Allison, S. D., Wallenstein, M. D., and Bradford, M. A.: Soil-carbon response to warming dependent on microbial physiology, Nat. Geosci., 3, 336–340, 2010. %not in list; Balshi, M. S., McGuire, A. D., Duffy, P., Flannigan, M., Kicklighter, D. W., and Melillo, J.: Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during...

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Comparison of Floating Chamber and Eddy Covariance Measurements of...

By: D. Bastviken; J. Holst; E. Sahlée; L. Tranvik; E. Podgrajsek; A. Rutgersson; A. Lindroth

Description: Uppsala University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Air, Water and Landscape Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from lakes may have a large impact on the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Traditionally lake fluxes have been measured using the floating chambers (FC) technique, however, several recent studies use the eddy covariance (EC) method. We present simultaneous flux measurements ...

Anderson, D. E., Striegl, R. G., Stannard, D. I., Catherine, M., Mcconnaughey, T. A., and Labaugh, J. W.: Estimating lake–atmosphere CO2 exchange, Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 988–1001, 2010.; Baldocchi, D. D.: Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems?: past, present and future, Global Change Biol., 9, 479–492, 2003.; Bastviken, D.: Methane, Encycloped., edited by: Likens, G., Elsevier, Oxford, 2009....

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Nitrous Oxide in the North Atlantic Ocean : Volume 3, Issue 4 (17/...

By: D. W. R. Wallace; U. Breitenbach; S. Walter; H. W. Bange

Description: Forschungsbereich Marine Biogeochemie, IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. In order to investigate the role of the North Atlantic Ocean as a source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and to decipher the major formation pathways of nitrous oxide, measurements of dissolved nitrous oxide were made during three cruises in the tropical, subtropical and subpolar North Atlantic in October/November 2002, M...

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Thermal and Haline Effects on the Calculation of Air-sea Co2 Fluxe...

By: J. D. Shutler; P. E. Land; L. M. Goddijn-murphy; D. K. Woolf

Description: International Centre for Island Technology, Heriot Watt University, Stromness, Orkney KW16 3AW, UK. The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO...

Bolin, B: On the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the sea, Tellus, 12, 274–281, 1960.; Broecker, W. S. and Peng, T.-H.: Gas exchange rates between air and sea, Tellus, 26, 21–35, 1974; Copin-Montegut, C.: A new formula for the effect of temperature on the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater., Mar. Chem., 25, 29–37, 1988.; Dickson, A. G. and Millero F. J.: A comparison of the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in se...

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Distributions and Assemblages of Larval Fish in the East China Sea...

By: K. W. Lan; G. C. Gong; M. A. Lee; W. Y. Chen

Description: Coastal and Offshore Resources Research Center, Taiwan Fishery Research Institute, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A total of 8459 larval fish were collected in the southern East China Sea during the winter northeasterly monsoon season and the summer southwesterly monsoon seasons in 2008. They were composed of 184 species belonging to 105 families and 162 genera. The abundance in terms of CPUE (number of individuals/1000 m3) of the larvae was about s...

Aizawa, M.: Stomiiformes, in: Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species, edited by: Nakabo, T., Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 306–310, 2002.; Batty, R. S. and Blaxter, J. H. S.: The effect of temperature on the burst swimming performance of fish larvae, J. Exp. Biol., 170, 187–201, 1992.; Chang, P. H. and Isobe, A.: A numerical study on the Changjiang diluted water in the Yellow and East China Seas, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 108, 1–17, doi:

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Carbon Dioxide Balance of Subarctic Tundra from Plot to Regional S...

By: I. Kiepe; C. Biasi; T. Johansson; T. Friborg; P. J. Martikainen; M. E. Marushchak; H. Soegaard; V. Elsakov; T. Virtanen

Description: Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. We report here the carbon dioxide (CO2) budget of a 98.6-km2 subarctic tundra area in Northeast European Russia based on measurements at two different scales and two independent up-scaling approaches. Plot scale measurements (chambers on terrestrial surfaces, gas gradient method and bubble collectors on lakes) were carried out f...

Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, U., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grunwald, T., Morgenstern K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology, Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 113–175, doi:10.1016/S0065-2504(...

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A Reappraisal of the Vital Effect in Benthic Foraminifera on Mg/CA...

By: L. J. De Nooijer; C. Barras; F. Jorissen; J. C. Wit; G. J. Reichart

Description: Department of Geochemistry, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD, Utrecht, The Netherlands. The reconstruction of past temperatures is often achieved through measuring the Mg/Ca value of foraminiferal test carbonate. The diversity in foraminiferal Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations suggests that there is also a biological control on this proxy. This study presents a new Mg/Ca-temperature calibration for the benthic foraminifer Bulimina marg...

Anand, P., Elderfield, H., and Conte, M. H.: Calibration of \chem{Mg}/\chem{Ca} thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series, Paleoceanography, 18, 1–15, 2003.; Barker, S., Greaves, M., and Elderfield, H.: A study of cleaning procedures used for foraminiferal \chem{Mg}/\chem{Ca} thermometry, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(9), 8407, 2003.; Barras, C., Duplessy, J.-C., Geslin, E., Michel, E., and Jorissen, F. J.: Calibration of δ18O of ...

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Sub-grid Scale Representation of Vegetation in Global Land Surface...

By: V. K. Arora; J. R. Melton

Description: Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2, Canada. Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs) and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance and to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. To accomplish these tasks, two approaches for PFT spatial representation are widely used: composite and m...

Ajtay, M. J., Ketner, P., and Duvigneaud, P.: Terrestrial primary production and phytomass, in: The Global Carbon Cycle, SCOPE 13, edited by: Bolin, B., Degens, E. T., and Ketner, P., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 129–182, 1979.; Arora, V.: Modeling vegetation as a dynamic component in soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer schemes and hydrological models, Rev. Geophys., 40, 3-1–3-26, doi:10.1029/2001RG000103, 2002.; Arora, ...

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The Importance of Micrometeorological Variations for Photosynthesi...

By: F. Lagergren; A. Lindroth; M. Mölder; G. Schurgers

Description: Lund University, Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund, Sweden. Plant canopies affect the canopy micrometeorology, and thereby alter canopy exchange processes. For the simulation of these exchange processes on a regional or global scale, large-scale vegetation models often assume homogeneous environmental conditions within the canopy. In this study, we address the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2

Alton, P. B., North, P. R., and Los, S. O.: The impact of diffuse sunlight on canopy light-use efficiency, gross photosynthetic product and net ecosystem exchange in three forest biomes, Glob. Change Biol., 13, 776–787, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01316.x, 2007.; Arx, G. V., Dobbertin, M., and Rebetez, M.: Spatio-temporal effects of forest canopy on understory microclimate in a long-term experiment in Switze...

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The Temperature Sensitivity of Organic Matter Decay in Tidal Marsh...

By: J. A. Langley; G. R. Guntenspergen; M. L. Kirwan

Description: Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA, USA. Approximately half of marine carbon sequestration takes place in coastal wetlands, including tidal marshes, where ecosystems accumulate organic matter to build soil elevation and survive sea level rise. The long-term viability of marshes, and their carbon pools, depends in part on how the balance between productivity and decay responds to climate change. Here, we report the sensitivit...

Allison, S. D., Wallenstein, M. D., and Bradford, M. A.: Soil-carbon response to warming dependent on microbial physiology, Nat. Geosci., 3, 336–340, 2010.; Ball, A. S. and Drake, B. G.: Short-term decomposition of litter produced by plants grown in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Glob. Change Biol., 3, 29–35, 1997.; Bond-Lamberty, B. and Thomson, A.: Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record, Nature, 464, 579–...

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Does Chlorophyll A Provide the Best Index of Phytoplankton Biomass...

By: F. Bruyant; M. Babin; C. Grob; M. S. Twardowski; Y. Huot; H. Claustre

Description: CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. Probably because it is a readily available ocean color product, almost all models of primary productivity use chlorophyll as their index of phytoplankton biomass. As other variables become more readily available, both from remote sensing and in situ autonomous platforms, we should ask if other indices of biomass might be preferable. Herein, we compare the accuracy of ...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H. R., Banzon, V. F., and Evans, R. H.: Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Babin, M. and Morel, A.: An incubator designed for extensive and sensitive measurements of phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters, Limnol. Oceanogr., 39, 694–702, 1994.; Babin, M., Morel, A., Claustre, H., Bricaud, A., Kolber, Z., and Falkowski, P. G...

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Assessment of Excess N2 and Groundwater N2O Emission Factors of Ni...

By: C. Von Der Heide; R. Well; K. Meyer; H. Flessa; D. Weymann; C. Konrad; M. Deurer; W. Walther

Description: Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems, Büsgen-Institute, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. We investigated the dynamics of denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in 4 nitrate (NO3) contaminated denitrifying sand and gravel aquifers of northern Germany (Fuhrberg, Sulingen, Thülsfelde and Göttingen) to quantify their potential N2O emission and to evaluate exi...

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Beyerle, U., Holocher, J., Peeters, F., and Kipfer, R.: Excess air in groundwater as a potential indicator of past environmental changes, in: Study of Environmental Change using Isotope Techniques, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, C&S Papers Series 13/P, 174–183, 2002.; Almeida, J. S., Reis, M. A. M., and Carrondo, M. J. T.: A unifying kinetic model of denitrification, J. Theor. Biol., 186, 241–249, 1997.; Blackmer, A. M. and Bremner, J. M.: Inhibitory effect...

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Leaf Area Controls on Energy Partitioning of a Mountain Grassland ...

By: A. Cernusca; U. Tappeiner; A. Haslwanter; A. Hammerle; G. Wohlfahrt

Description: Institut für Ökologie, Universität Innsbruck, Sternwartestr. 15, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria). The main findings of the study were: i) Energy partitioning w...

Amiro, B. D., Barr, A. G., Black, T. A., Iwashita, H., Kljun, N., McCaughey, J. H., Morgenstern, K., Murayama, S., Nesic, Z., Orchansky, A. L., and Saigusa, N.: Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest sites, Saskatchewan, Canada, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 136, 237–251, 2006.; Asner, G. P.: Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance, Remote Sens. Environ., 64, 234–253, 1998.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü.,...

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Constraints from Atmospheric Co2 and Satellite-based Vegetation Ac...

By: D. Dalmonech; S. Zaehle

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Biogeochemical Systems Department, Hans-Knöll-Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. Terrestrial ecosystem models used for Earth system modelling show a significant divergence in future patterns of ecosystem processes, in particular carbon exchanges, despite a seemingly common behaviour for the contemporary period. An in-depth evaluation of these models is hence of high importance to achieve a better understan...

Alessandri, A. and Navarra, A.: On the coupling between vegetation and rainfall inter-annual anomalies: possible contributions to seasonal rainfall predictability over land areas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, 1–6, doi:10.1029/2007GL032415, 2008.; Angert, A., Biraud, S., Bonfils, C., Henning, C. C., Buermann, W., Pinzon, J., Tucker, C. J., and Fung, I.: Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by...

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Turbulence Characteristics in Grassland Canopies and Implications ...

By: S. V. Tarakanov; E. Nemitz; M. A. Sutton; A. Neftel; A. Hensen; B. Ihly; B. Loubet; S. K. Jones; P. Cellier; B. E. Lehmann

Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK. In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with a combin...

Aylor~D E., Wang~Y., and Miller~D R.: Intermittent wind close to the ground within a~grass canopy, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 66, 427–448, 1993.; Baldocchi~D.: A~Lagrangian random-walk model for simulating water vapour, \chemCO_2 and sensible heat flux densities and scalar profiles over and within a~soybean canopy, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 61, 113–144, 1992.; Brunet,~Y., Finnigan,~J J., and Raupach,~M R.: A~wind tunnel study of air flow in waving wheat: single-point velocity s...

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Biostratigraphic Evidence of Dramatic Holocene Uplift of Robinson ...

By: L. E. Lara; G. Orozco; J. P. Le Roux; V. Astudillo; P. Sepúlveda

Description: Departamento de Geología, FCFM, Universidad de Chile. A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI) on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) indicates that a~dramatic but localized uplift occurred since 8000 BP, at a rate of about 8.5 mm yr−1. In fact, supratidal flats and sand layers with marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp.) are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l., and covered by transi...

Assereto, R. L. A. M. and Kendall, C. G. S. C.: Nature, origin and classification of peritidal tepee structures and related breccias, Sedimentology, 24, l53–2l0, 1977.; Becker, J. J., Sandwell, D. T., Smith, W. H. F., Braud, J., Binder, B., Depner, J., and Weatherall, P.: Global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc seconds resolution: SRTM30_PLUS, Mar. Geod., 32, 355–371, 2009.; Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, ...

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A Short History of Ocean Acidification Science in the 20Th Century...

By: P. G. Brewer

Description: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), 7700 Sandholdt Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA. This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the High CO2 Ocean by then well underway as the trajecto...

Andersen, N. R. and Malahoff, A.: The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Oceans, Plenum Press, New York, 749 pp., 1977.; Bolin, B.: On the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the sea, Tellus, 12, 274–281, 1960.; Brewer, P. G.: Direct observation of the oceanic CO2 increase, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 997–1000, 1978.; Bradshaw, A. L., Brewer, P. G., Shafer, D. K., and Williams, R. T.: Measurements of total carbon dioxide and alkalinity by ...

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Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Drained Peatland Forest During Spring F...

By: N. Brüggemann; R. Kiese; T. Laurila; T. Vesala; K. Butterbach-bahl; T. Penttilä; A.-j. Kieloaho; A. Lohila; K. Minkkinen; M. K. Pihlatie; J. Schönborn; I. Mammarella

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured during a two month campaign at a drained peatland forest in Finland by the eddy covariance (EC) technique (CO2 and N2O), and automatic and manual chambers (CO2, CH4 and N...

Alm, J., Saarnio, S., Nykänen. H., Silvola, J., and Martikainen, P. J.: Winter CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on some natural and drained boreal peatlands, Biogeochemistry, 44, 163–186, 1999.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A.S., Martin, P.H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grunwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, ...

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Influence of Increasing Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentrations ...

By: K. Jürgens; K. Mammitzsch; G. Jost

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde, Sektion Biologische Meereskunde, Seestra{ß}e 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany. Increases in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration are expected to cause a decrease in the pH of ocean waters, a process known as ocean acidification. In oxygen-deficient zones this will add to already increased DIC and decreased pH values. It is not known how this might affect microbial communities and microbially ...

Balch, W. E., Fox, G. E., Magrum, L. J., Woese, C. R., and Wolfe, R. S.: Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol. Rev., 43, 260–296, 1979.; Beldowski, J., Löffler, A., Schneider, B., and Joensuu, L.: Distribution and biogeochemical control of total CO2 and total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea, J. Marine Syst., 81, 252–259, 2010.; Booth, I. R.: Regulation of cytoplasmic pH in bacteria, Microbiol. Rev., 49, 359–378, 1985.; Brettar, I., La...

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