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Assessments of Urban Aerosol Pollution in Moscow and Its Radiative...

By: M. A. Sviridenkov; A. Smirnov; B. N. Holben; N. Y. Chubarova

Description: Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. Simultaneous measurements by the collocated AERONET CIMEL sun/sky photometers at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (MSU MO) and at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics during September 2006–April 2009 provide the estimates of the effects of urban pollution on various aerosol properties in different seasons. The ave...

Afifi, A. A. and Azen, S. P.: Statistical Analysis, A Computer Oriented Approach, 2nd edition, Academic, San Diego, California, 486 pp., 1979.; Chubarova, N. E.: Influence of Aerosol and Atmospheric Gases on Ultraviolet Radiation in Different Optical Conditions Including Smoky Mist of 2002, Dokl. Earth Sci., 394(1), 62–67, 2004.; Chubarova, N. Y., Larin, I. K., Lebedev, V. V., Partola, V. S., Lezina, Ye. A., and Rublev, A. N.: Experimental and model study of changes in s...

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Retrieval of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Polarized Phase ...

By: A. Masoumi; H. R. Khalesifard; A. Bayat

Description: Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731, Iran. Aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, and polarized phase function have been retrieved from polarized sun-photometer measurements for atmosphere of Zanjan (36.70° N, 48.51° E, and 1800 m a.m.s.l.) from January 2010 to December 2012. The results show that the maximum value of aerosol polarized phase funct...

Abdi, F., Flamant, C., Cuesta, J., Flamant, P., and Khalesifard, H. R.: Multiplatform observations of dust vertical distribution during transport over northwest Iran in the summertime, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D05206, doi:10.1029/2010JD014573, 2011.; Abdi, F., Flamant, C., Cuesta, J., Oolman, L., Flamant, P., and Khalesifard, H. R.: Dust transport over Iraq and northwest Iran associated with winter Shamal: a case study, J....

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Potential Radio Frequency Interference with the Gps L5 Band for Ra...

By: D. M. Akos; A. M. Wolff; S. Lo

Description: Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. Future radio occultation (RO) receivers are planned to utilize the newly implemented Global Positioning System (GPS) L5 band centered at 1176.45 MHz. Since there are currently no operational GPS L5 receivers used for space-based RO applications, the interference environment is unclear. Distance measuring equipment (DME) and tactical air navigation (TACAN) station...

Bastide, F., Chatre, E., Macabiau, C., and Roturier, B.: GPS L5 and Galileo E5a/E5b signal-to-noise density ratio degradations due to DME / TACAN signals: simulations and theoretical derivation, J. Inst. Navig., 26, 1049–1062, 2004.; dB Systems Inc.: available at: http://www.dbsant.com/5100A.php (last access: 20 June 2013), 2013.; Fisher, J. R.: Signal analysis and blanking experiments on DME interference, National Radio Astron...

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Uncertainty Analysis of Computational Methods for Deriving Sensibl...

By: P. Keravec; J.-p. Gastellu-etchegorry; P. Béziat; P. A. Solignac; J.-p. Béteille; J.-l. Selves; A. Brut; E. Ceschia

Description: CESBIO, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, bpi 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. The use of scintillometers to determine sensible heat fluxes is now common in studies of land-atmosphere interactions. The main interest in these instruments is due to their ability to quantify energy distributions at the landscape scale, as they can calculate sensible heat flux values over long distances, in contrast to Eddy Correlation systems. However, scintillometer data do ...

Andreas, E. L.: Estimating Cn2 over Snow and Sea Ice from Meteorological Data, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 5, 481–495, 1988.; Andreas, E. L.: Two-wavelength method of measuring path-averaged turbulent surface heat fluxes, J. Atmos. And Ocean Tech., 6, 280–292, 1989.; Asanuma, J. and Lemoto, K.: Measurements of regional sensible heat flux over Mongolian grassland using large aperture scintillometer, J. Hydrol., 333, 58–67, 2007.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., Menenti, M., Fedd...

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Automatic Cloud Top Height Determination Using a Cost-effective Ti...

By: S.-c. Chang; B. Thies; J. Bendix; H. M. Schulz

Description: Laboratory for Climatology and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany. A new method for the determination of cloud top heights from the footage of a time-lapse camera is presented. Contact points between cloud tops and underlying terrain are automatically detected in the camera image based on differences in the brightness, texture and movement of cloudy and non-cloudy areas. The height of the detected cloud top ...

Abeles, P.: BoofCV, available at: http://boofcv.org/ (last access: 11 February 2014), 2012.; Bendix, J., Rollenbeck, R., Göttlicher, D., Nauss, T., and Fabian, P.: Seasonality and diurnal pattern of very low clouds in a deeply incised valley of the eastern tropical Andes (South Ecuador) as observed by a cost-effective webcam system, Meteorol. Appl., 15, 281–291, 2008.; Bruijnzeel, L. A., Mulligan, M., and Scatena, F. N.: Hydrometeorology of...

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Integrated Method for the Measurement of Trace Nitrogenous Atmosph...

By: J. Stihle; J.-e. Petit; O. Liu; C. Bonnet; M. Thomas; S. Casunuran; M. M. Baum; A. Webster; S. Kennedy; L. Depernon; J. A. Moss; R. Latimer; D. Key; S. Hidalgo; M. Burgoyne; D. Wanger

Description: Oak Crest Institute of Science, Pasadena, California, USA. Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is stand...

Abdou, H. M., Medwick, T., and Bailey, L. C.: Determination of Hydrazine and 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine, Separately or in Mixtures, by High-pressure Liquid Chromatography, Anal. Chim. Acta, 93, 221–226, 1977.; Akyuz, M. and Atu, S.: Simultaneous Determination of Aliphatic and Aromatic amines in Water and Sediment Samples by Ion-pair Extraction and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A, 1129, 88–94, 2006.; Allegrini, I., Desantis, F., Dipalo, V., Febo, A., Per...

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On the Efficient Treatment of Temperature Profiles for the Estimat...

By: R. Lindstrot; R. Preusker

Description: Institut für Weltraumwissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6–10, 12165 Berlin, Germany. The vertical temperature profile in the atmosphere influences the top-of-atmosphere radiance in regions of atmospheric absorption bands. In the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum, this poses a problem for the fast forward simulation of the radiative transfer, needed in algorithms for the retrieval of any atmospheric or surfac...

Barton, I. J. and Scott, J. C.: Remote measurement of surface pressure using absorption in the oxygen A-band, Appl. Optics, 25, 3502–3507, 1986.; Breon, F. M. and Bouffies, S.: Land surface pressure estimate from measurements in the oxygen A absorption band, J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 69–77, 1996.; Delwart, S., Preusker, R., Bourg, L., Santer, R., Ramon, D., and Fischer, J.: MERIS inflight spectral calibration, J. Appl. Remote Sens., 28, 479–496, 2007.; Fell, F. and Fischer...

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Seven Years of Global Retrieval of Cloud Properties Using Space-bo...

By: A. M. Sayer; V. V. Rozanov; L. Lelli; A. A. Kokhanovsky; M. Vountas; J. P. Burrows

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28334 Bremen, Germany. We present a global and regional multi-annual (June 1996–May 2003) analysis of cloud properties (spherical cloud albedo – CA, cloud optical thickness – COT and cloud top height – CTH) of optically thick (COT > 5) clouds, derived using measurements from the GOME instrument on board the ESA ERS-2 space platform. We focus on cloud top heigh...

Bony, S., Lau, K.-M., and Sud, Y. C.: Sea surface temperature and large-scale circulation influences on tropical greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing, J. Climate, 10, 2055–2077, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2055:SSTALS>2.0.CO;2, 1997.; Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Frerick, J., No{ë}l, S., Rozanov, V. V., Chance, K. V., and Goede, A. P. H.: SCIAMACHY: Mission objectiv...

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Performance of Wvss-ii Hygrometers on the Faam Research Aircraft :...

By: R. J. Cotton; S. J. Abel; A. M. Woolley; A. K. Vance

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately one hundred flights executed over the course of two years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet but that a WVSS-II fed...

Brown, P. R. A. and Francis, P. N.: Improved measurement of the ice water content in cirrus using a total-water probe, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 12, 410–414, 1995.; Abel, S. J., Cotton, R. J., Barrett, P. A., and Vance, A. K.: A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 7, 4815–4857, doi:10.5194/amtd-7-4815-2014, 2014.; Baker, R., Curtis, R., Helms, D., Homans, A., and Ford, B.: Studies of the Effectiv...

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New Algorithm for Integration Between Wireless Microwave Sensor Ne...

By: H. Messer; R. Samuels; P. Alpert; Y. Liberman

Description: Tel Aviv University, School Of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel. One of the main challenges for meteorological and hydrological modelling is accurate rainfall measurement and mapping across time and space. To date, the most effective methods for large-scale rainfall estimates are radar, satellites, and, more recently, received signal level (RSL) measurements derived from commercial microwave networks (CMNs). While these methods provide i...

Alpert, P., Shafir, H., Cotton, W. R., and Freundlich, A.: Prediction of Meso-gamma scale orographic precipitation, Trends Hydrol., 1, 401–441, 1994.; Bringi, V. and Chandrasekar, V.: Polarimetric Doppler weather radar: principles and applications, Cambridge University Press, 2001.; Byrd, R. H., Schnabel, R. B., and Shultz, G. A.: A trust region algorithm for nonlinearly constrained optimization, SIAM J. Num. Anal., 24, 1152–1170, 1987.; Chahine, M. T., Pagano, T. S., Au...

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Assessment of the Consistency Among Global Microwave Land Surface ...

By: J. Turk; C. Prigent; Y. Tian; M. Temimi; R. Khanbilvardi; F. A. Furuzawa; H. Norouzi; H. Masunaga

Description: Department of Construction Management and Civil Engineering Technology, New York City College of Technology, Brooklyn, New York, USA. The goal of this work is to intercompare four global land surface emissivity products over various land-cover conditions to assess their consistency. The intercompared land emissivity products were generated over a 5-year period (2003–2007) using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observin...

Basist, A., Grody, N. C., Peterson, T. C., and Williams, C. N.: Using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager to Monitor Land Surface Temperatures, Wetness, and Snow Cover, J. Appl. Meteorol., 37, 888–911, 2.0.co;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1998)037<0888:utssmi>2.0.co;2, 1998.; Boukabara, S.-A., Garrett, K., Chen, W., Iturbide-Sanchez, F., Grassotti, C., Kongoli, C., Chen, R., Liu, Q., Yan, B., Weng, F., Ferrar...

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Monitoring the Lowermost Tropospheric Ozone with Thermal Infrared ...

By: J. Cuesta; G. Dufour; M. Eremenko; B. Gaubert; M. Beekmann; P. Sellitto; G. Forêt; J.-m. Flaud; V.-h. Peuch

Description: Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR7583, CNRS – Universités Paris-Est et Paris Diderot, CNRS, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil, France. In this paper, we present performance analyses for a concept geostationary observing system called MAGEAQ (Monitoring the Atmosphere from Geostationary orbit for European Air Quality). The MAGEAQ mission is designed to include a TIR (thermal infrared) spectrometer and a bro...

Amann, M., Bertok, I., Cofala, J., Gyarfas, F., Heyes, C., Klimont, Z., Schöpp, W., and Winiwarter, W.: Baseline scenarios for the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme, Tech. rep., International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, for the European Commission Directorate General for Environment, Directorate C: Environment and Health, 2005.; Atmospheric Composition Constellation: A geostationary satellite constellation for observing global air quality: An internationa...

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Aerosol Optical Depth (Aod) Retrieval Using Simultaneous Goes-east...

By: S. Kondragunta; R. M. Hoff; I. Laszlo; H. Zhang; A. Lyapustin

Description: Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET), University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the western United States is observed independently by both the (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) GOES-East and GOES-West imagers. The GASP (GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product) aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithm treats each satellite as a unique sensor and thus obtains two separate aerosol optical ...

Al-Saadi, J., Szykman, J., Pierce, R. B., Kittaka, C., Neil, D., Chu, D. A., Remer, L., Gumley, L., Prins, E., Weinstock, L., MacDonald, C., Wayland, R., Dimmick, F., and Fishman, J.: Improving National Air Quality Forecasts with Satellite Aerosol Observations, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1249–1261, doi:10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1249, 2005.; Anderson, T. L., Charlson, R. J., Winker, D. M., Ogren, J. A., and Holmen, K.: Mesoscal...

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Near-infrared Remote Sensing of Los Angeles Trace Gas Distribution...

By: G. C. Toon; T. J. Crawford; T. J. Pongetti; J.-f. L. Blavier; K. W. Wong; D. Fu; K. S. Manatt; S. P. Sander

Description: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. The Los Angeles basin is a significant anthropogenic source of major greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and the pollutant CO, contributing significantly to regional and global climate change. We present a novel approach for monitoring the spatial and temporal distributions of greenhouse gases in the Los Angeles basin using a high-resolutio...

Bekker, D. L., Lukowiak, M., Shaaban, M., Blavier, J.-F. L., and Pingree, P. J.: A Hybrid-FPGA System for On-Board Data Processing Targeting the MATMOS FTIR Instrument, Aerospace Conference, IEEE, 1–15, doi:10.1109/AERO.2008.4526400, Big Sky, Montana, 1–8 March, 2008.; Bekker, D. L., Blavier, J.-F. L., Toon, G. C., and Servais, C.: An FPGA-based Data Acquisition and Processing System for the MATMOS FTIR Instrument, ...

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Evaluation of Wind Profiles from the Nerc Mst Radar, Aberystwyth, ...

By: D. A. Hooper; C. F. Lee; G. Vaughan

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. This study quantifies the uncertainties in winds measured by the Aberystwyth Mesosphere–Stratosphere–Troposphere (MST) radar (52.4° N, 4.0° W), before and after its renovation in March 2011. A total of 127 radiosondes provide an independent measure of winds. Differences between radiosonde and radar-measured horizontal winds are correlated with long-term averages of vertical velocities, suggesting an ...

Adachi, A., Kobayashi, T., Gage, K. S., Carter, D. A., Hartten, L. M., Clark, W. L., and Fukuda, M.: Evaluation of three-beam and four-beam profiler wind measurement techniques using a five-beam wind profiler and collocated meteorological tower, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 22, 1167–1180, 2005.; Cheong, B. L., Yu, T. Y., Palmer, R. D., Yang, K. F., Hoffman, M. W., Frasier, S. J., and Lopez-Dekker, F. J.: Effects of wind field inhomogeneities on Doppler beam swinging revealed ...

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Uncertainty Analysis of Computational Methods for Deriving Sensibl...

By: P. Keravec; A. Brut; J.-l. Selves; P. A. Solignac; P. Béziat; J.-p. Gastellu-etchegorry; J.-p. Béteille; E. Ceschia

Description: CESBIO, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, bpi 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France. The use of scintillometers to determine sensible heat fluxes is now common in studies of land-atmosphere interactions. The main interest in these instruments is due to their ability to quantify energy distributions at the landscape scale, as they can calculate sensible heat flux values over long distances, in contrast to Eddy Covariance systems. However, scintillometer data do n...

Konzelmann, T., Calanca, P., Muller, G., Menzel, L., and Lang, H.: Energy balance and evapotranspiration in a high mountain area during summer, J. Appl. Meteorol., 36, 7, 966–973, 1997.; Lamaud, E., Ogée, J., Brunet, Y., and Berbigier, P.: Validation of Eddy flux measurements above the Understorey of a Pine Forest, Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 106, 187–203, 2001.; Lee, X., Massman, W. J., and Law, B.: Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Anal...

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Observations of Precipitable Water Vapour Over Complex Topography ...

By: T. Blumenstock; F. Hase; G. Mengistu Tsidu

Description: Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis i...

Agusti-Panareda, A., Vasiljevic, D., Beljaars, A., Bock, O., Guichard, F., Nuret, M., Mendez, A. G., Andersson, E., Bechtold, P., Fink, A., Hersbach, H., Lafore, J.-P., Ngamini, J.-B., Parker, D. J., Redelsperger, J.-L., and Tomkins, A. M.: Radiosonde humidity bias correction over the West African region for the special AMMA reanalysis at ECMWF, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 595–617, doi:10.1002/qj.396, 2009.; Auligne, T., McN...

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Two Fast Temperature Sensors for Probing of the Atmospheric Bounda...

By: J. Bange; M. Mauz; N. Wildmann

Description: Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Two types of temperature sensors are designed and tested: a thermocouple and a fine wire resistance thermometer. The intention of this study is to figure out which kind of measurement principle is in general more suited for atmospheric boundary layer meteorology with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). The sensors are calibrated in a NIST traceable climate chamber a...

Bange, J.: Airborne Measurement of Turbulent Energy Exchange Between the Earth Surface and the Atmosphere, Sierke Verlag, Göttingen, 174 pp., 2009.; Bange, J., Spieß, T., Herold, M., Beyrich, F., and Hennemuth, B.: Turbulent Fluxes from Helipod Flights above Quasi-Homogeneous Patches within the LITFASS Area, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 121, 127–151, 2006.; Breitkopf, G. S. W. and Kim, S.: Recovery-Faktor des frontal angeströmten zylindrischen Mantelthermoelementes mit ebener ...

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Si2N Overview Paper: Ozone Profile Measurements: Techniques, Uncer...

By: P. Raspollini; B. Hassler; D. Degenstein; M. Shiotani; M. De Mazière; C. Vigouroux; G. Stiller; E. Kyrölä; J.-c. Lambert; T. Von Clarmann; R. D. McPeters; D. W. Tarasick; K. H. Rosenlof; T. August; J. Staehelin; J. Wild; B. M. Dinelli; A. Rozanov; J. Tamminen; G. Dufour; S. M. Frith; M. J. Kurylo; K. Hoppel; Y. Sasano; H. G. J. Smit; J. Zawodny; J. P. Veefkind; R. J. Van Der A; C. Von Savigny; R. Munro; A. Parrish; C. Clerbaux; J. Granville; T. Sano; D. Hubert; S. Godin-beekmann; P. K. Bhartia; L. Froidevaux; Y. Kasai; J. Urban; I. Petropavlovskikh; M. Weber; C. T. McElroy; E. E. Remsberg; K. A. Walker; P. F. Levelt; A. Dudhia; H. Nakajima; N. R. P. Harris

Description: CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key cu...

Steinbrecht, W., Claude, H., Schönenborn, F., McDermid, I. S., Leblanc, T., Godin-Beekmann, S., Keckhut, P., Hauchecorne, A., van Gijsel, J. A. E., Swart, D. P. J., Bodeker, G. E., Parrish, A., Boyd, I. S., Kämpfer, N., Hocke, K., Stolarski, R. S., Frith, S. M., Thomason, L. W., Remsberg, E. E., von Savigny, C., Rozanov, A., and Burrows, J. P.: Ozone and temperature trends in the upper stratosphere at five stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composit...

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Volatilizable Biogenic Organic Compounds (Vbocs) with Two Dimensio...

By: A. B. Guenther; K. C. Barsanti; J. F. Pankow; A. N. Melnychenko; W. Luo; L. M. Isabelle; C. Chen; T. N. Rosenstiel

Description: Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207, USA. Two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) with detection by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was applied in the rapid analysis of air samples containing highly complex mixtures of volatilizable biogenic organic compounds (VBOCs). VBOC analytical methodologies are briefly reviewed, and optimal conditions are discussed for sampling with both adsorption/thermal desorpti...

Arey, J. S., Nelson, R. K., Xu, L., and Reddy, C. M.: Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography retention indices to estimate environmental partitioning properties for a complete set of diesel fuel hydrocarbons, Anal. Chem., 77, 7172–7182, 2005.; Arnts, R. R.: Evaluation of adsorbent sampling tube materials and Tenax-TA for analysis of volatile biogenic organic compounds, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1579–1584, 2010.; Baker, B. and Sinnott, M. J.: Analysis of sesqui...

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