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Plos One : Pediatric Response to Second-line Antiretroviral Therap...

By: Nicolas Sluis-cremer

Description : Of the 880 children who initiated ART during this time period, 80 (9.1%) switched to second-line ART due to therapeutic failure of first-line ART after a median of 95 weeks (IQR 65–147 weeks). Eight (10%) of the failures received NNRTI-based second-line ART, all of whom failed a PI-based first-line regimen. Seventy (87.5%) received PI-based secondline ART, all of whom failed a NNRTI-based first-line regimen. Two children (2.5%) received non-standard dual th...

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Plos One : Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estima...

By: Martin Krkosek

Description : The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green ...

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Plos One : a Truncated Ades Kinase Protein Generated by is Aba1 In...

By: Mark Alexander Webber

Description : Over-expression of AdeABC efflux pump stimulated continuously by the mutated AdeRS two component system has been found to result in antimicrobial resistance, even tigecycline (TGC) resistance, in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB). Although the insertion sequence, ISAba1, contributes to one of the AdeRS mutations, the detail mechanism remains unclear. In the present study we collected 130 TGC-resistant isolates from 317 carbapenem resistant ...

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Plos One : Arabidopsis Bhlh100 and Bhlh101 Control Iron Homeostasi...

By: Malcolm Bennett

Description : Iron deficiency induces a complex set of responses in plants, including developmental and physiological changes, to increase iron uptake from soil. In Arabidopsis, many transporters involved in the absorption and distribution of iron have been identified over the past decade. However, little is known about the signaling pathways and networks driving the various responses to low iron. Only the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT has been s...

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Plos One : Personality, Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity, Volume 7

By: Frank Seebacher

Description : Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO2) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrela...

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Plos One : Dynamics of the Ethanolamine Glycerophospholipid Remode...

By: Ying Xu

Description : Acyl chain remodeling in lipids is a critical biochemical process that plays a central role in disease. However, remodeling remains poorly understood, despite massive increases in lipidomic data. In this work, we determine the dynamic network of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (PE) remodeling, using data from pulse-chase experiments and a novel bioinformatic network inference approach. The model uses a set of ordinary differential equations based on the as...

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Plos One : Mitochondrial Capture Misleads About Ecological Speciat...

By: Diego Fontaneto

Description : The North American ecological species Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia pulex are thought to have diverged from a common ancestor by adaptation to sympatric but ecologically distinct lake and pond habitats respectively. Based on mtDNA relationships, European D. pulicaria is considered a different species only distantly related to its North American counterpart, but both species share a lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) allele F supposedly involved in lake adaptation ...

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Plos One : a Pareto-optimal Refinement Method for Protein Design S...

By: Yang Zhang

Description : Computational design of protein function involves a search for amino acids with the lowest energy subject to a set of constraints specifying function. In many cases a set of natural protein backbone structures, or ‘‘scaffolds’’, are searched to find regions where functional sites (an enzyme active site, ligand binding pocket, protein – protein interaction region, etc.) can be placed, and the identities of the surrounding amino acids are optimized to satisfy...

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Plos One : Nanodiscs Allow Phage Display Selection for Ligands to ...

By: Mark J. Van Raaij

Description : In this work, we exploited a method that uses polytopic membrane proteins as targets for phage display selections. Membrane proteins represent the largest class of drug targets and drug discovery is mostly based on the identification of ligands binding to target molecules. The screening of a phage display library for ligands against membrane proteins is typically hindered by the requirement of these proteins for a membrane environment, which is necessary to...

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Plos One : Dynamic Range of Vertebrate Retina Ganglion Cells ; Imp...

By: Wing-ho Yung

Description : The vertebrate retina has a very high dynamic range. This is due to the concerted action of its diverse cell types. Ganglion cells, which are the output cells of the retina, have to preserve this high dynamic range to convey it to higher brain areas. Experimental evidence shows that the firing response of ganglion cells is strongly correlated with their total dendritic area and only weakly correlated with their dendritic branching complexity. On the other h...

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Plos One : a Novel Synthetic Microtubule Inhibitor, Mpt0B214 Exhib...

By: Andreas Villunger

Description : Agents that interfere with mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics are commonly used for cancer treatment. Previously, a series of aroylquinolone regioisomers as novel microtubule inhibitors were discovered. One of these new compounds, MPT0B214 inhibited tubulin polymerization through strongly binding to the tubulin’s colchicine-binding site and had cytotoxic activity in a variety of human tumor cell lines. After treatment with MPT0B214, KB c...

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Plos One : N-cadherin Dependent Collective Cell Invasion of Prosta...

By: Chih-hsin Tang

Description : Cancer cell invasion is the critical first step of metastasis, yet, little is known about how cancer cells invade and initiate metastasis in a complex extracellular matrix. Using a cell line from bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PC3), we analyzed how prostate cancer cells migrate in a physiologically relevant 3D Matrigel. We found that PC3 cells migrated more efficiently as multi-cellular clusters than isolated single cells, suggesting that the presence ...

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Plos One : the C. Elegansrab Family ; Identification, Classificati...

By: Patrizia D’adamo

Description : Rab monomeric GTPases regulate specific aspects of vesicle transport in eukaryotes including coat recruitment, uncoating, fission, motility, target selection and fusion. Moreover, individual Rab proteins function at specific sites within the cell, for example the ER, golgi and early endosome. Importantly, the localization and function of individual Rab subfamily members are often conserved underscoring the significant contributions that model organisms such...

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Plos One : Dynamic Quantitative Intravital Imaging of Glioblastoma...

By: Arrate Munoz-barrutia

Description : The spatiotemporal and longitudinal monitoring of cellular processes occurring in tumors is critical for oncological research. We focused on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an untreatable highly vascularized brain tumor whose progression is thought to critically depend on the oxygen and metabolites supplied by blood vessels. We optimized protocols for orthotopic GBM grafting in mice that were able to recapitulate the biophysical constraints normally governin...

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Plos One : the Chloroplast Min System Functions Differentially in ...

By: Diane Bassham

Description : The nongreen plastids, such as etioplasts, chromoplasts, etc., as well as chloroplasts, are all derived from proplastids in the meristem. To date, the Min system members in plants have been identified as regulators of FtsZ-ring placement, which are essential for the symmetrical division of chloroplasts. However, the regulation of FtsZ-ring placement in nongreen plastids is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the division site placement of nong...

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Plos One : Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Inhibition Provides Opportunit...

By: Jingwu Xie

Description : Dysregulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been associated with cancer stem cells (CSC) and implicated in the initiation of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic CSCs are rare tumor cells characterized by their ability to selfrenew, and are responsible for tumor recurrence accompanied by resistance to current therapies. The lethality of these incurable, aggressive and invasive pancreatic tumors remains a daunting clinical challenge. Thus, the o...

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Plos One : Geographic Information System-based Screening for Tb, H...

By: Madhukar Pai

Description : Participants (N = 247) reported high-risk characteristics : 67% previously incarcerated, 40% had lived in a homeless shelter, and 29% had a history of crack cocaine use. However, 34% reported never having been tested for HIV, and 41% did not recall prior tuberculin skin testing. Screening identified 3% (8/240) of participants with HIV infection, 1% (3/239) with untreated syphilis, and 15% (36/234) with latent tuberculosis infection. Of the eight persons wit...

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Plos One : Buho ; a Matlab Script for the Study of Stress Granules...

By: Georg Stoecklin

Description : The spontaneous and reversible formation of foci and filaments that contain proteins involved in different metabolic processes is common in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs) belong to a novel family of cellular structures collectively known as mRNA silencing foci that harbour repressed mRNAs and their associated proteins. SGs and PBs are highly dynamic and they form upon stress and dissolve thus releasing ...

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Plos One : Tlm-quant ; an Open-source Pipeline for Visualization a...

By: Peter Setlow

Description : Gene expression heterogeneity is a key driver for microbial adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions, cell differentiation and the evolution of species. This phenomenon has therefore enormous implications, not only for life in general, but also for biotechnological applications where unwanted subpopulations of non-producing cells can emerge in large-scale fermentations. Only time-lapse fluorescence microscopy allows real-time measurements of gene ...

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Plos One : Increasing O-glcnacylation Level on Organ Culture of So...

By: Salvatore V Pizzo

Description : O-N-acetylglucosaminylation is a reversible post-translational modification which presents a dynamic and highly regulated interplay with phosphorylation. New insights suggest that O-GlcNAcylation might be involved in striated muscle physiology, in particular in contractile properties such as the calcium activation parameters. By the inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, we investigated the effect of the increase of soleus O-GlcNAcylation level on the contractile prope...

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